Found 759 Documents across 76 Pages (0.007 seconds)
  1. Punishment and social organization: a study of durkheim's theory of penal evolutionSpitzer, Steven - Law & Society Review, 1975 - 5 Hypotheses

    This study empirically tests Durkheim’s theories of punishment in a sample of preindustrial societies. Analysis shows little support for five hypotheses derived from Durkheim’s theories. Findings indicate that in preindustrial societies, the intensity of punishment is associated with political integration, there are fewer collective definitions of crime, there is a higher likelihood of using material sanctions; additionally, slavery is likely to be an institutionalized means of punishment in societies with harsher sanctions.

    Related DocumentsCite
  2. The ultimate coercive sanctionOtterbein, Keith F. - , 1986 - 14 Hypotheses

    The author presents a comprehensive study on the prevalence, presentation, and motivation of the "ultimate coercive sanction": capital punishment, or the "death penalty". He begins by examining capital punishment across all 53 cultures for which data was present in the Probability Sample Files, and finds that capital punishment is overwhelmingly present. After discerning some general trends, the author examines how capital punishment presents itself across different kinds of political systems, and uses the results to voice support for various theories on why the capital punishment is practiced. The study concludes by stating that the capital punishment may be something that human society may never be truly rid of, but greater societal stability may be able to reduce its prevalence.

    Related DocumentsCite
  3. A Cross-National Test of the Uncertainty Hypothesis Religious BeliefBarber, Nigel - Cross-Cultural Research, 2011 - 3 Hypotheses

    The study looks at 137 countries and examines the relationship between disbelief in God and increased security in health, economic development and security. The findings provide additional support for the uncertainty hypothesis as there is a positive relationship between a country's health or financial growth/security and the population's disbelief in God.

    Related DocumentsCite
  4. Cross-cultural correlates of the consonant-vowel (cv) syllableMunroe, Robert L. - Cross-Cultural Research, 1996 - 2 Hypotheses

    This study examines whether language construction, specifically the number of consonant-vowel syllables, will be related to the environment and literacy of a society. Empirical analysis suggests that consonant-vowel syllables are more common in warmer climates and less common in written languages.

    Related DocumentsCite
  5. Norm violations and punishments across human societiesGarfield, Zachary H. - Evolutionary Human Sciences, 2023 - 4 Hypotheses

    This study uses Bayesian phylogenetic regression modelling across 131 largely non-industrial societies to test how variation of punishment is impacted by social, economic, and political organization. The authors focus on the presence of norm violations and types of punishments, and explores their relationships. The norm violations include adultery, rape, religious violations, food violations, and war cowardice. While the types of punishment are reputational, material, physical, or education. This study suggests a hypothesis for each type of punishment in relation to socioecological variables.

    Related DocumentsCite
  6. Religiousness related to cultural complexity and pressures to obey cultural normsZern, David - Genetic Psychology Monographs, 1984 - 2 Hypotheses

    This article examines the relationship between religiousness, child socialization, and cultural complexity. Empirical analysis suggests that there is a positive association between cultural complexity and religiousness, especially ritual. Religiousness was also associated with schooling, one of the child-rearing variables examined. A theoretical discussion concerning religion and intellect is also included.

    Related DocumentsCite
  7. The evolutionary forms of the religious life: a cross-cultural, quantitative analysisSanderson, Stephen K. - American Anthropologist, 2008 - 1 Hypotheses

    This article develops a new measure of religious evolution and uses multivariate statistical techniques to examine correlates of different religious stages. Results suggest that subsistence economy, societal size, and the presence of writing and records are all associated with the evolution toward monotheism.

    Related DocumentsCite
  8. Criteria of Complexity in Evolution: Cross-Cultural Study in Archaeology of PrehistoryKradin, Nikolay N. - Social Evolution & History, 2013 - 6 Hypotheses

    In "The Urban Revolution" (1950), V. Gordan Childe hypothesized ten traits of civilization: urban centers, occupational specialization, monumental buildings, taxation by and/or tribute to elite, isolation of ruling group(s), writing, art, long-distance trade, social solidarity reinforced through common ideologies, and state formation. The author of this study analyzes these traits, and in particular, the presence of written language, with data from two different databases, one ethnographic and one archaeological. He finds that written language is highly correlated with the other traits of civilization as hypothesized by V. Gordan Childe.

    Related DocumentsCite
  9. The role of the aged in primitive societySimmons, Leo W. - , 1945 - 15 Hypotheses

    Explores 109 traits relating primarily to physical habitat, economy, political and social organization, and religion, to see how they relate to the role and treatment of the aged. General patterns were sought. Numerous ethnographic examples are given.

    Related DocumentsCite
  10. Country Religiosity Declines as Material Security IncreasesBarber, Nigel - Cross-Cultural Research, 2012 - 4 Hypotheses

    The present study attempts to replicate the Barber (2011) finding that more considerable security influences a country's disbelief in God. However, this research uses a more diverse sample and seeks to answer additional questions about religiosity and security than the previous work. The results are in line with all of the predictions and offer extra support to the uncertainty hypothesis.

    Related DocumentsCite