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  1. Children's play and work: the relevance of cross-cultural ethnographic research for archaeologistsEmber, Carol R. - Childhood in the Past: an International Journal, 2015 - 2 Hypotheses

    Authors undertook two studies to investigate the natures of work and play cross-culturally in children ages 6-10. The first study investigated potential variables affecting cross-cultural variation in the degree of children's contribution to economic work. The second study investigated the degree to which (and variables affecting why) forms of child's play reflect economic work and/or adult activities across various cultures.

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  2. Is It Ritual? Or Is It Children? Distinguishing Consequences of Play from Ritual Actions in the Prehistoric Archaeological RecordLangley, Michelle C. - Current Anthropology, 2018 - 1 Hypotheses

    Archaeologists often interpret found portable artifacts (e.g. dolls, miniature weapons) as ritual objects. But it is argued that they might instead reflect children's play activities. This descriptive study analyzes the artifacts and context of children's play using the literature and the ethnographic record of 82 hunter-gatherer societies. Six signs of the presence of children, that might survive in archaeological record are noted, which may suggest that many "ritual activities" are children's activities.

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  3. Moralistic gods, supernatural punishment and the expansion of human socialityPurzycki, Benjamin Grant - Nature, 2016 - 2 Hypotheses

    Does belief in moralizing and punitive gods promote sociality between coreligionists who are otherwise strangers? A recent dataset of behavioral economic experiment results and demographic and religious data among eight disparate populations allows the researchers to test their hypothesis of a positive association between deity's perceived interest in human morality and favorability of treatment of outsiders who share a religion. Their findings mostly support this hypothesis, which they suggest lends credibility to a theory in which religion encourages cooperation between large groups of people, and is thus a successful product of cultural evolution.

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  4. Evolution of Polynesian bark cloth and factors influencing cultural changeLarsen, Anna W. - Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, 2011 - 0 Hypotheses

    The purpose of the present article is to "reconstruct the prehistoric evolution and dispersal of Polynesian bark cloth (116)" using cladistic phylogenetic methods on ethnographic data. The author intends to shed light on the evolution of this cultural domain, as well as the settlement patterns and the diversification of Polynesian cultures. No hypotheses are explicitly stated or tested, rather, Larsen is concerned with designing the most accurate and reliable reconstructions in order to best conduct analyses and evaluate existing hypotheses. The utility of examining other cultural domains phylogenetically is discussed.

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  5. A cross-cultural analysis of recruitment into all male groups: an ethological perspectiveMackey, Wade C. - Journal of Human Evolution, 1981 - 1 Hypotheses

    This article examines proxemic behavior between adults and children in 10 cultures. Data suggests that the older boy-adult male dyad is the most common combination of adult groups and children. Relevant theory on hunting and male-male bonding is discussed.

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  6. Material security, life history, and moralistic religions: A cross cultural examinationPurzycki, Benjamin Grant - PLos ONE, 2018 - 5 Hypotheses

    This article is a quantitative analysis of 592 participants from 8 societies. The study examines a number of theories about what predicts moralistic religions, including life history theory. Findings suggest that there is no evident relationship between these life history predictions and the religious beliefs regarding moralism.

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  7. A worldwide view of matriliny: using cross-cultural analyses to shed light on human kinship systemsSurowiec, Alexandra - Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 2019 - 10 Hypotheses

    This article tested multiple previous hypotheses for associations between matriliny and cultural traits typically associated with stability and loss (subsistence strategy, animal domestication, mating system, residence pattern, wealth transfer, and property succession). Combining both genetic and linguistic data, researchers formed a phylogenetic ‘supertree’ that includes 16 matrilineal populations. Using this dataset they performed various analyses to assess patterns of evolution of matriliny and matrilocality.

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  8. Combination of Genetic and Humanitarian (Cross-Cultural) Methods for the Identification of Human Genes Involved in the Process of Adaptation to Evolutionary New Environmental FactorsBorinskaya, S. A. - Russian Journal of Genetics, 2015 - 7 Hypotheses

    Researchers used population samples from the ALFRED database and the Human Genome Diversity Project (HGDP), in conjunction with 68 populations from the Ethnographic Atlas, in an attempt to identify specific genes involved in human adaptation to environmental stimuli as a result of migration. Specifically, researchers looked at the allele frequencies for four different genes typically associated with varying subsistence forms. These four included the APOE apolipoprotein E gene (lipid transport and regulation of cholesterol), LCT lactase gene (enzyme that decomposes lactose), CCR5 chemokine receptor gene (deletion mutation that decreases immunodeficiency virus propagation), and the ADH1B alcohol dehydrogenase gene (important enzyme for alcohol metabolism). The allele frequencies were then analyzed to distinguish any possible correlation to economic-culture types using a two-sided Spearman Test. Researchers also ran a similar test to analyze allele frequencies and pathogen load, however the majority of the findings were not statistically significant. The findings suggest that there is a definite relationship between the allele frequencies and type of economy of a population.

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  9. Musical Diversity in India: A Preliminary Computational Study Using CantometricsDaikoku, Hideo - Keio SFC Journal, 2020 - 3 Hypotheses

    The authors examine musical diversity in India using cantometric data from 32 Indian societies with the goal of better understanding how music varies between and within cultures. They find very minor musical differences between language families, greater diversity between societies but within language families, and the most variation within societies.

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  10. Adolescents at play: a cross-cultural study of adolescent gamesSchlegel, Alice - The Content of Culture: Constants and Variables, 1989 - 5 Hypotheses

    This chapter investigates correlates of competitive adolescent games, focusing on societal and family characteristics as well as socialization variables and personality traits. Data suggest that games meant to encourage competitiveness will be more common for boys than for girls. Competitive games are also statistically associated with low societal and technological complexity, small and monogamous family organization, less physical contact and comfort in infant socialization, less integration in adult activities, and various personality traits.

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