Found 941 Documents across 95 Pages (0.042 seconds)
  1. Socioecology shapes child and adolescent time allocation in twelve hunter-gatherer and mixed-subsistence forager societiesLew-Levy, Sheina - Nature Scientific Reports, 2022 - 3 Hypotheses

    This paper seeks to understand the roles played by children and adolescents in hunter-gatherer societies in relation to their social and ecological context. The authors set out to investigate how environmental factors, ecological risk, and the energetic contributions of adult men and women to food production may have influenced children/adolescent allocation of time to child care, domestic work, food production, and play. In order to carry out this study, the authors logged the behaviors of 690 children and adolescents from twelve hunter-gatherer and mixed-subsistence societies (Agta, Aka, Baka, BaYaka, Dukha, Hadza, Matsi-genka, Maya, Mayangna, Mikea, Pume, and Tsimane), totaling 85,597 unique observations. The study found that harsh environmental factors were not associated with child/adolescent time allocation, but that local ecological risk such as dangerous animals and lack of water availability predicted decreased time allocation to child care and domestic work, and that increased adult female participation in food production was associated with less time invested in child care among boys. It also found that all gendered differences in time allocation among children were stronger when men made greater contributions to food production than women. The authors interpret these results to signify that parents may play a role in preparing their children for environmental and ecological difficulty in order to help them develop skills that will help them become useful community members as adults.

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  2. Children's work and women's work: a cross-cultural studyBradley, Candice - Anthropology of Work Review, 1987 - 2 Hypotheses

    This article tests a model for the patterning of the sexual division of children's labor.

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  3. Cultural influences on childhood participation in adult activitiesBarry III, Herbert - Cross-Cultural Research, 1996 - 9 Hypotheses

    This article uses ethnographic reports on a world wide sample of societies for rating frequency of participation by children in adult activities and degree of permissive treatment of children.

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  4. Toys as Teachers: A Cross-Cultural Analysis of Object Use and Enskillment in Hunter–Gatherer SocietiesRiede, Felix - Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory, 2023 - 2 Hypotheses

    The article discusses the role of toys and tools in the development of skills and cultural transmission in hunter-gatherer societies. The authors present a cross-cultural inventory of objects made for and by hunter-gatherer children and adolescents, finding that toys and tools were primarily handled outside of explicit pedagogical contexts, and there is little evidence for formalised apprenticeships. The authors suggest that children's self-directed interactions with objects, especially during play, have a critical role in early-age enskillment. Both boys and girls tend to use objects in work and play that emulate the gendered division of labor in their communities, and many objects made by and for children had full-scale counterparts. Finally, the authors argue that the peer group is crucial to skill acquisition in hunter-gatherer societies.

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  5. Population growth, society, and culture: an inventory of cross-culturally tested causal hypothesesSipes, Richard G. - , 1980 - 51 Hypotheses

    This book examines population growth rate and its correlates by testing 274 hypotheses (derived from multiple theories) with an 18-society sample. Forty-one of these hypotheses were significant at the .05 level, leading the author to accept these relationships as reflective of the real world. The 274 hypotheses are grouped into 51 broader hypotheses, and marked by (*) where relationships are significant as designated by the author or by significance p < 0.05.

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  6. How Do Hunter-Gatherer Children Learn Subsistence Skills?Lew-Levy, Sheina - Human Nature, 2017 - 4 Hypotheses

    To understand transmission of knowledge and its impact on human evolution history, this study explores the research question: "How do hunter-gatherer children learn subsistence skills?". The authors use meta-ethnography methods on 34 cultures from five continents discussing these topics. The results show that the learning process starts early in infancy when their parents take them to the excursions. In middle childhood, they already acquired gathering skills. Only in the start of adolescence, adults begin teaching how to hunt and to produce complex tools. The learning process continues into adulthood.

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  7. On the origins of gender roles: Women and the ploughAlesina, Alberto - The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 2013 - 20 Hypotheses

    There is considerable variation both within and across societies in attitudes towards female employment outside of the household. In some societies, the dominant belief is that women should have equal opportunity to work outside the home, while in others women are strongly discouraged from working outside of the domestic sphere. Here the authors use pre-industrial ethnographic data and contemporary observations of gender inequality to test the hypothesis that cultural attitudes regarding the appropriateness of women working outside of the household are rooted in the ancestral adoption of plough cultivation. Contemporary measures of gender inequality assess variation across countries, ethnic groups, and individuals.

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  8. Is It Ritual? Or Is It Children? Distinguishing Consequences of Play from Ritual Actions in the Prehistoric Archaeological RecordLangley, Michelle C. - Current Anthropology, 2018 - 1 Hypotheses

    Archaeologists often interpret found portable artifacts (e.g. dolls, miniature weapons) as ritual objects. But it is argued that they might instead reflect children's play activities. This descriptive study analyzes the artifacts and context of children's play using the literature and the ethnographic record of 82 hunter-gatherer societies. Six signs of the presence of children, that might survive in archaeological record are noted, which may suggest that many "ritual activities" are children's activities.

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  9. Relations among infants and juveniles in comparative perspectiveKonner, Melvin J. - Social Science Information, 1976 - 3 Hypotheses

    This article investigates peer relations in infancy, both in primates and in preindustrial human societies. Data from these populations shows a strong tendency toward a multi-age composition of play groups rather than solely peer-aged play groups for infants. Patterns in child care across societies of different subsistence types are empirically examined.

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  10. A cross-cultural perspective on theory and research on male homosexualityWerner, Dennis - Journal of Homosexuality, 1979 - 3 Hypotheses

    This article reviews psychological, sociobiological, and cultural materialist theories on male homosexuality. The author tests hypotheses focusing on parent-child relations, the gender of childhood companions, and residence patterns. Only the gender of childhood companions was significantly associated with homosexuality.

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