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  1. Explaining marriage patterns in a globally representative sample through socio-ecology and population history: A Bayesian phylogenetic analysis using a new supertreeMinocher, Riana - Evolution and Human Behavior, 2019 - 23 Hypotheses

    Researchers examine marriage patterns of 186 societies from the Standard Cross-Cultural Sample (SCCS). The eleven predictor variables are pathogen stress, arranged female marriages, population density, father roles during infancy, temperature, social stratification, wealth inequality, internal warfare, assault frequency, female agricultural contribution, and sex ratio. The two outcome variables measuring polygyny are cultural rules constraining polygyny and the percentage of married men who are polygynous. Controlling on phylogeny using a global supertree of the languages, analysis of marriage patterns reveals that assault frequency and pathogen stress are the strongest predictors of polygyny. These findings offer additional support for the theories of harem-defense polygyny and male genetic quality.

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  2. The mating system of foragers in the standard cross-cultural sampleMarlowe, Frank W. - Cross-Cultural Research, 2003 - 1 Hypotheses

    This article examines variation in polygyny among foragers. Empirical analysis suggests that the level of male provisioning influences mating systems: higher male contribution to subsistence is associated with monogamy. The influences of pathogen stress, male-male competition, and male coercion are also considered.

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  3. Human responses to environmental extremeness and uncertainty: a cross-cultural perspectiveLow, Bobbi S. - Risk and Uncertainty in Tribal and Peasant Economies, 1988 - 5 Hypotheses

    This article focuses on the effect of environmental extremes and unpredictability on human behavior and reproductive strategies. Significant correlations were found between environmental extremes and unpredictability and several variables, including mobility, subsistence mode, and degree of polygyny.

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  4. Comparing explanations of polygynyEmber, Melvin - Cross-Cultural Research, 2007 - 4 Hypotheses

    This article uses logistic regression analysis to examine pathogen stress and male mortality in warfare as predictors of nonsororal polygyny. Differences between state and non-state societies are observed. The authors also retest variables from White and Burton's 1988 study on causes of polygyny, finding only fraternal interest groups and absence of plow significant.

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  5. When one wife is enough: a cross-cultural study of the determinants of monogamyDow, Malcolm M. - Journal of Social, Evolutionary, and Cultural Psychology, 2013 - 7 Hypotheses

    This article tests a myriad of factors that may have contributed to the adoption of monogamy in preindustrial societies. Results indicate that monogamy is not imposed by elites; rather, it is a strategy often chosen by women who can see no advantage to increasing the size or economic productivity of their households with more wives. The authors also assert that monogamy is generally adopted through cultural diffusion. Low pathogen stress, low risk of famine, and low endemic violence are also correlated with monogamy.

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  6. War and socialization of children: comparing two evolutionary modelsEmber, Carol R. - Cross-Cultural Research, 2007 - 6 Hypotheses

    This article presents two evolutionary models that may explain relationships between war and socialization of children: the "environmentally contingent reproductive strategy" (ECRS) model put forward by Draper and Harpending (1982), and a model put forward by Carol and Melvin Ember. Results do not provide support for the hypotheses involving father-infant sleeping proximity derived from the ECRS model. The authors also find some inconsistencies with their own model.

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  7. Sex, power, and resources: ecological and social correlates of sex differencesLow, Bobbi S. - International Journal of Contemporary Sociology, 1990 - 15 Hypotheses

    This article focuses on ecological correlates of sexual division in the control of resources. The author tests several ecological theories put forth by others. Sex coalitions are examined in humans, and sexual dimorphism in resource acquisition and control is discussed.

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  8. Marriage systems and pathogen stress in human societiesLow, Bobbi S. - American Zoologist, 1990 - 5 Hypotheses

    This article examines the relationship between pathogen stress and polygyny. Results indicate that there is a positive association between the two that is not confounded by geographic region, latitude, population density, male-male competition, or presence of brideprice. In particular, pathogen stress precicts higher levels of non-sororal polygyny and capturing women for wives or concubines.

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  9. Sex differences in the anatomical locations of human body scarification and tattooing as a function of pathogen prevalenceSingh, Devendra - Evolution and Human Behavior, 1997 - 1 Hypotheses

    This study examines the relationship between body scarification and pathogen prevalence. Authors hypothesize that risk of serious pathogens will be related to scarification on areas of the body that are associated with physical attractiveness and fertility. Results show that only female stomach scarification is significantly related to pathogen prevalence.

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  10. Economic Systems of Foraging, Agricultural, and Industrial SocietiesFrederic L. Pryor - , 2005 - 26 Hypotheses

    The second and third parts of this book classify the economic systems of foraging and agricultural societies in the SCCS based on correlations between their institutions of property an distribution. These economic types are then examined for relationships with other social, political, demographic, and environmental factors in order to draw tentative conclusions regarding the origins of the Agricultural and Industrial Revolutions. The fourth part of the book uses cross-national data to examine similar associations in industrial/service economies, and is not included here.

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