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  1. Consanguinity as a Major Predictor of Levels of Democracy: A Study of 70 NationsWoodley, Michael A. - Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 2013 - 7 Hypotheses

    While it is widely accepted that there are a multitude of variables that contribute to a society’s level of democracy, the authors of this study argue that the prevalence of consanguinity is one that is often overlooked. Using a sample of 70 nations, they tested the relationship between consanguinity (defined as marriage and subsequent mating between second cousins or closer relatives) and level of democracy (defined by both the Polity IV scale and the EIU Index) and found a significant negative relationship. Similarly, when controlled for a host of different variables in multiple regression analysis, the significant relationship between consanguinity and level of democracy held true.

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  2. The ecological-evolutionary typology of human societies and the evolution of social inequalityNielsen, Francois - Sociological Theory, 2004 - 1 Hypotheses

    This article examines the evolution of social inequality through tests of the influence of political, economic and social factors. “Analysis of comparative data shows that while some dimensions of the stratification system (such as measures of social complexity) exhibit a monotonic trend of increasing inequality with level of technology from the hunting-and-gathering to the agrarian type, others (such as measures of freedom and sexual inequality among males) exhibit a pattern of “agrarian reversal” in which inequality increases from the hunting-and-gathering to the advanced horticultural type but then declines with the agrarian type” (292).

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  3. Women's occupational opportunities: a cross-cultural testNaroll, Maud - Behavior Science Research, 1989 - 2 Hypotheses

    A brief review of research on women's status is presented. Predictions are tested about women's choice of occupation in relation to levels of social complexity.

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  4. Legacies of Islamic Rule in Africa: Colonial Responses and Contemporary DevelopmentBauer, Vincent - World Development, 2022 - 5 Hypotheses

    The authors of this study examine the relationships between historical exposure to Islamic kingdoms and current economic, medical, and educational development in Africa. They predict that ethnic groups that were previously ruled by Islamic states or chiefdoms will have worse outcomes today, theorizing that these worse outcomes would be not as a result of an inherent characteristic of Islam or Islamic kingdoms themselves but rather decreased investment by colonial states or missions. Their results lend some support to their hypotheses, and particularly to the predictions that Christian missions and colonial states would not be able to penetrate areas under Islamic influence as easily as other regions.

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  5. Rice farming, culture and democracyAng, James B. - European Economic Review, 2021 - 4 Hypotheses

    The authors propose that societies with a tradition of rice farming are less likely to develop a democracy than societies with a tradition of wheat farming. They base their predictions on the theory that wheat farming, as opposed to rice farming, does not require extensive community collaboration and promotes individualism, which then in turn promotes democracy. Their findings were robustly consistent with their predictions. The authors used multiple controls in their analyses, including religion, economic development, geography, and local democratic practices.

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  6. The democraticness of traditional political systems in AfricaNeupert-Wentz, Clara - Democratization, 2021 - 4 Hypotheses

    Using a new expert survey, the authors explore the democraticness of traditional political systems (TPS) in 159 ethnic groups in Africa. Their initial analysis finds that measures of public preference input and political process control are particularly strong contributors to the degree that a society may develop democracy in their TPS. They also find that societies with powerful elders are more likely to be democratic, while more hierarchically organized political systems and those with kings, chiefs, and segmentary lineages are less likely.

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  7. Christianity and democracy: a cross-cultural study (afterthoughts)Korotayev, Andrey V. - World Cultures, 2002 - 2 Hypotheses

    This study proposes that polygyny, unilineal descent organization and large extended families could be regarded as universal negative predictors of communal democracy. Crosstabulations show that Christianity is positively associated with communal democracy and negatively associated with polygyny, and thus the authors suggest that Christianity influenced the development of democracy in Europe through its discouraging of polygyny and unilineal descent organization.

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  8. Cultural transformation, art, and collective action in polity buildingBlanton, Richard - Cross-Cultural Research, 2011 - 1 Hypotheses

    This article examines the artistic encouragement of collective action during premodern regime building. No cross-cultural empirical hypotheses are tested, but the author identifies artistic processes that promoted the moral capacity for political commitment in a collective (rather than autocratic) polity.

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  9. An index of sociocultural development applicable to precivilized societiesBowden, Edgar - American Anthropologist, 1969 - 1 Hypotheses

    Using principal-components analysis, the author develops an Index of Sociocultural Development that measures the same concepts as Carneiro’s Index of Cultural Accumulation. Carneiro’s index also contains a measure of cultural elaboration which the author suggests examining further.

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  10. Punishment and social organization: a study of durkheim's theory of penal evolutionSpitzer, Steven - Law & Society Review, 1975 - 5 Hypotheses

    This study empirically tests Durkheim’s theories of punishment in a sample of preindustrial societies. Analysis shows little support for five hypotheses derived from Durkheim’s theories. Findings indicate that in preindustrial societies, the intensity of punishment is associated with political integration, there are fewer collective definitions of crime, there is a higher likelihood of using material sanctions; additionally, slavery is likely to be an institutionalized means of punishment in societies with harsher sanctions.

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