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  1. Explaining monogamy and polygyny among foragers and horticulturalistsHooper, Paul L. - , 2006 - 5 Hypotheses

    This article tests several hypotheses related to the presence or absence of polygyny. Results suggest a negative relationship between polygyny and male provisioning, and positive relationships between polygyny and warfare, interpersonal aggression, and pathogen stress.

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  2. Paternal investment and the human mating systemMarlowe, Frank W. - Behavioural Processes, 2000 - 7 Hypotheses

    This article explores the interrelated roles of male parental investment (males' infant/child care and resource provisioning) and male-male competition (variation in male status) on the degree of monogamy or polygyny in a society. Marlowe argues that Degree of parental investment affects females' interest in resource-shopping versus gene-shopping. Also discussed is the idea that male-male competition affects males' inclination toward harem-defense or coercive polygyny. Particular attention is paid to variation in parental investment and male stratification across subsistence types.

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  3. Hunter-gatherers and human evolutionMarlowe, Frank W. - Evolutionary Anthropology, 2005 - 4 Hypotheses

    This article explores the relationships between habitat and social organization among humans and other species. Diet, technology, group size, home range, mobility, kinship, marital residence, sexual division of labor, mating system, central places, food sharing, and egalitarianism are all considered.

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  4. Explaining marriage patterns in a globally representative sample through socio-ecology and population history: A Bayesian phylogenetic analysis using a new supertreeMinocher, Riana - Evolution and Human Behavior, 2019 - 23 Hypotheses

    Researchers examine marriage patterns of 186 societies from the Standard Cross-Cultural Sample (SCCS). The eleven predictor variables are pathogen stress, arranged female marriages, population density, father roles during infancy, temperature, social stratification, wealth inequality, internal warfare, assault frequency, female agricultural contribution, and sex ratio. The two outcome variables measuring polygyny are cultural rules constraining polygyny and the percentage of married men who are polygynous. Controlling on phylogeny using a global supertree of the languages, analysis of marriage patterns reveals that assault frequency and pathogen stress are the strongest predictors of polygyny. These findings offer additional support for the theories of harem-defense polygyny and male genetic quality.

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  5. When one wife is enough: a cross-cultural study of the determinants of monogamyDow, Malcolm M. - Journal of Social, Evolutionary, and Cultural Psychology, 2013 - 7 Hypotheses

    This article tests a myriad of factors that may have contributed to the adoption of monogamy in preindustrial societies. Results indicate that monogamy is not imposed by elites; rather, it is a strategy often chosen by women who can see no advantage to increasing the size or economic productivity of their households with more wives. The authors also assert that monogamy is generally adopted through cultural diffusion. Low pathogen stress, low risk of famine, and low endemic violence are also correlated with monogamy.

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  6. Marriage systems and pathogen stress in human societiesLow, Bobbi S. - American Zoologist, 1990 - 5 Hypotheses

    This article examines the relationship between pathogen stress and polygyny. Results indicate that there is a positive association between the two that is not confounded by geographic region, latitude, population density, male-male competition, or presence of brideprice. In particular, pathogen stress precicts higher levels of non-sororal polygyny and capturing women for wives or concubines.

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  7. Hunting and gathering: the human sexual division of foraging laborMarlowe, Frank W. - Cross-Cultural Research, 2007 - 3 Hypotheses

    This article explores the sexual division of labor among foragers, focusing on resource availability and constraints on women’s foraging activities. The authors conclude that “there is a greater division of foraging labor in more seasonal habitats where less gathering is possible and more extractive, tool-based foraging is required” (191).

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  8. Extracted-Food Resource-Defense Polygyny in Native Western North American Societies at ContactSellen, Daniel W. - Current Anthropology, 2004 - 3 Hypotheses

    In this article, the authors seek to understand the connection between male resource-holding potential and male mating success. This connection has been suggested by behavioral ecologists as a way of explaining differing rates of polygyny across cultures. The authors investigate this relationship by testing the relationship between rates of polygyny and male control of local subsistence sites among North American societies during the period of contact. They find a positive relationship between these two variables for both terrestrial and aquatic game, but not for gathered plants. This suggests support for the theory.

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  9. Marital residence among foragersMarlowe, Frank W. - Current Anthropology, 2004 - 2 Hypotheses

    This article challenges an earlier finding that hunter-gatherers are predominantly virilocal in residence. The author presents new tests of marital residence including early patterns in marital residence; results suggest that foragers are more multilocal than nonforagers. The author theorizes that bride service, food acquisition methods, small population size, little accumulated wealth, and low frequency of warfare among foragers could all influence the tendency toward multilocal residence.

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  10. Sex, power, and resources: ecological and social correlates of sex differencesLow, Bobbi S. - International Journal of Contemporary Sociology, 1990 - 15 Hypotheses

    This article focuses on ecological correlates of sexual division in the control of resources. The author tests several ecological theories put forth by others. Sex coalitions are examined in humans, and sexual dimorphism in resource acquisition and control is discussed.

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