Found 566 Documents across 57 Pages (0.007 seconds)
  1. War and socialization of children: comparing two evolutionary modelsEmber, Carol R. - Cross-Cultural Research, 2007 - 6 Hypotheses

    This article presents two evolutionary models that may explain relationships between war and socialization of children: the "environmentally contingent reproductive strategy" (ECRS) model put forward by Draper and Harpending (1982), and a model put forward by Carol and Melvin Ember. Results do not provide support for the hypotheses involving father-infant sleeping proximity derived from the ECRS model. The authors also find some inconsistencies with their own model.

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  2. Pathogens and politics: further evidence that parasite prevalence predicts authoritarianismMurray, Damian R. - PLoS ONE, 2013 - 3 Hypotheses

    This article employs cross-national and cross-cultural methods to investigate whether pathogen stress is a direct determinant of authoritarianism. The study controls on other factors such as famine, warfare, and malnutrition and evaluates alternative causal models.

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  3. Sex differences in the anatomical locations of human body scarification and tattooing as a function of pathogen prevalenceSingh, Devendra - Evolution and Human Behavior, 1997 - 1 Hypotheses

    This study examines the relationship between body scarification and pathogen prevalence. Authors hypothesize that risk of serious pathogens will be related to scarification on areas of the body that are associated with physical attractiveness and fertility. Results show that only female stomach scarification is significantly related to pathogen prevalence.

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  4. Dog-Human Coevolution: Cross-Cultural Analysis of Multiple HypothesesChambers, Jaime - Journal of Ethnobiology, 2021 - 16 Hypotheses

    In this article, the authors seek to understand dog-human coevolution by considering predictors of different aspects of dog-human relationships across cultures. In order to measure dog-human relationships, the researchers created three indexes: dogs' utility for humans (DUH), humans' utility for dogs (HUD), and the personhood of dogs (PD). Each of these indexes were tested against various pre-coded variables that were empirically and theoretically relevant to this subject.

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  5. Parenting and cultures of risk: a comparative analysis of infidelity, aggression, and witchcraftQuinlan, Robert J. - American Anthropologist, 2007 - 4 Hypotheses

    This study tests a broad "risk response" hypothesis: environmental risk can reduce parents' involvement and care which, through its effects on children's behavioral strategies later in life, ultimately produces a larger cultural model favoring risky behavior. Examinations of extramarital sex, aggression, theft, and witchcraft support this hypothesis, leading the authors to suggest that child development is the underpinning of cultural adaptation in the face of environmental change.

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  6. When one wife is enough: a cross-cultural study of the determinants of monogamyDow, Malcolm M. - Journal of Social, Evolutionary, and Cultural Psychology, 2013 - 7 Hypotheses

    This article tests a myriad of factors that may have contributed to the adoption of monogamy in preindustrial societies. Results indicate that monogamy is not imposed by elites; rather, it is a strategy often chosen by women who can see no advantage to increasing the size or economic productivity of their households with more wives. The authors also assert that monogamy is generally adopted through cultural diffusion. Low pathogen stress, low risk of famine, and low endemic violence are also correlated with monogamy.

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  7. Explaining marriage patterns in a globally representative sample through socio-ecology and population history: A Bayesian phylogenetic analysis using a new supertreeMinocher, Riana - Evolution and Human Behavior, 2019 - 23 Hypotheses

    Researchers examine marriage patterns of 186 societies from the Standard Cross-Cultural Sample (SCCS). The eleven predictor variables are pathogen stress, arranged female marriages, population density, father roles during infancy, temperature, social stratification, wealth inequality, internal warfare, assault frequency, female agricultural contribution, and sex ratio. The two outcome variables measuring polygyny are cultural rules constraining polygyny and the percentage of married men who are polygynous. Controlling on phylogeny using a global supertree of the languages, analysis of marriage patterns reveals that assault frequency and pathogen stress are the strongest predictors of polygyny. These findings offer additional support for the theories of harem-defense polygyny and male genetic quality.

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  8. Adolescent fertility and risky environments: a population-level perspective across the lifespanPlacek, Caitlyn D. - Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 2012 - 3 Hypotheses

    This study provides the first tests of the relationships between population-level adolescent fertility rates and mortality risk at two different time points. The hypotheses are based in life-history theory, which predicts that human reproductive choices are shaped by mortality. The authors find that reproductive strategies are significantly predicted by both early (between ages 1-7) risks of mortality and current cues of mortality risk.

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  9. Explaining monogamy and polygyny among foragers and horticulturalistsHooper, Paul L. - , 2006 - 5 Hypotheses

    This article tests several hypotheses related to the presence or absence of polygyny. Results suggest a negative relationship between polygyny and male provisioning, and positive relationships between polygyny and warfare, interpersonal aggression, and pathogen stress.

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  10. A global analysis of cultural tightness in non-industrial societiesJackson, Joshua Conrad - Proceedings of the Royal Society, 2020 - 12 Hypotheses

    This article builds on previous cross-country and cross-state research into Tightness-Looseness (TL) theory, which proposes relationships between the incidence of ecological threat and cultural tightness, as well as tightness’ downstream effects on belief in a moralizing high god, inter-group contact and authoritarian leadership. To evaluate the generalizability of TL theory beyond complex cultures, the authors test these relationships among 86 nonindustrial societies from the ethnographic record. A structural equation model is presented of the results for nonindustrial societies; it is generally in accord with previous findings from more complex societies. Because the nonindustrial sample is more variable, they also look at relationships between societal complexity and kinship heterogeneity, aspects that vary in nonindustrial societies.

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