Found 724 Documents across 73 Pages (0.008 seconds)
  1. Social density and public ritual in non-industrial communities: a cross-cultural analysisReeves, Edward B. - The Sociological Quarterly, 1989 - 2 Hypotheses

    This article empirically tests the Durkheimian theory that different types of rites and the elaboration of public rituals are associated with social density. Analysis indicates that social density is negatively associated with the occurrence of crisis rites and positively associated with the occurrence of calendrical rites and ritual elaboration. Additional findings suggest that social density is a better predictor of ritual activity than political hierarchy or the division of labor.

    Related DocumentsCite
  2. Female power and male dominance: on the origins sexual inequalitySanday, Peggy Reeves - , 1981 - 1 Hypotheses

    This book explores the factors that affect sexual inequality. The author first focuses on the symbolic representations of a culture's "sex-role plan," or how male and female power is scripted in different societies. The author then tests the relationships bewteen sexual inequality and variables like subsistence strategy, division of labor, and menstrual and sex taboos. The bases of female power and the rise of male dominance are also discussed.

    Related DocumentsCite
  3. The economic origins of the evil eye beliefGershman, Boris - Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 2015 - 5 Hypotheses

    The author analyzes 76 societies synchronically, positing that the evil eye belief functions as a useful heuristic and prosocial/cohesive element in weakly-institutionalized societies with significant wealth inequality; in particular, the evil eye belief is found to be more prevalent in agro-pastoral societies where material wealth is vulnerable and plays a dominant role in subsistence economy.

    Related DocumentsCite
  4. Toward a theory of the status of womenSanday, Peggy Reeves - American Anthropologist, 1973 - 3 Hypotheses

    This study tests an ecological-economic theory of female contribution to subsistence, focusing on subsistence type as a potential correlate. In an exploratory analysis, 28 independent variables (not all listed below) are examined. The relationship between female contribution to subsistence and female status is also examined.

    Related DocumentsCite
  5. Political centralization in pre-colonial AfricaOsafo-Kwaako, Philip - Journal of Comparative Economics, 2013 - 4 Hypotheses

    This article investigates commonly accepted theories that purport to explain political centralization and investigate their relevance to sub-Saharan Africa. The leading ideas for the formation of political centralization using a worldwide sample include population density, inter-state warfare, and trade. However, the authors reported these factors are not predictive of the sub-Saharan Africa sample. The authors suggest that the lack of agricultural productivity in sub-Saharan Africa may have stunted population density therefore inhibiting political centralization and that Africa’s poor economic performance is, in part, due to lack of political centralization.

    Related DocumentsCite
  6. Ethnoscientific expertise and knowledge specialisation in 55 traditional culturesLightner, Aaron D. - Evolutionary Human Sciences, 2021 - 5 Hypotheses

    The authors of this exploratory study tested predictions from five different theoretical models for the evolution of ethnoscientific expertise. They claim support for three of the models. They then compared cultural variables and their five models to three different knowledge domains: conceptual (unable to be easily observed), motor (easily observable), and medicinal. Their results indicate that their cultural transmission model is associated with the motor knowledge domain and that their proprietary knowledge model is associated with the medicinal knowledge domain.

    Related DocumentsCite
  7. Local knowledge and practice in disaster relief: A worldwide cross-cultural comparison of coping mechanismsPierro, Rachele - International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 2022 - 13 Hypotheses

    The article discusses the importance of incorporating local knowledge and strategies into sustainable climate change adaptation. The authors examined 90 societies from the ethnographic record to document the coping mechanisms and contingency plans used by societies around the world in response to natural hazards. They classified coping mechanisms into four types: technological, subsistence, economic, and religious. The study finds that most societies employ multiple types of coping mechanisms and that technological coping mechanisms are most common in response to fast-onset hazards, while religious coping mechanisms are most common in response to slow-onset hazards. The study also finds that religious and nonreligious coping strategies are not mutually exclusive and are often used in conjunction with each other.

    Related DocumentsCite
  8. Supernatural explanations across 114 societies are more common for natural than social phenomenaJackson, Joshua Conrad - Nature Human Behavior, 2023 - 3 Hypotheses

    The article examines whether cultural groups tend to use supernatural beliefs more to explain natural phenomena or social phenomena. Analysis of ethnographic text from 114 diverse societies reveals that supernatural explanations are more common for natural phenomena, consistent with the theory that humans tend to perceive intent and agency in the natural world. However, supernatural explanations of social phenomena were more prevalent in urbanized societies with greater social complexity and anonymity. The study highlights how people use supernatural beliefs to explain their world and how this varies across small-scale and urbanized communities.

    Related DocumentsCite
  9. Land inheritance rules: theory and cross-cultural analysisBaker, Matthew - Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 2005 - 1 Hypotheses

    This study presents a theory of land inheritance that "focuses on the incentives that land inheritence rules create for potential heirs" and tests this theory on a cross-cultural sample.

    Related DocumentsCite
  10. The origins of the economy: a comparative study of distribution in primitive and peasant economiesPryor, Frederic L. - , 1977 - 39 Hypotheses

    Considerable disagreement exists in regard to the origin and distribution of economic phenomena such as money, slavery, markets, exchange, and imbalanced transfers. Here the author utilizes a worldwide cross-cultural sample of 60 pre-industrial "societies" to empirically test many economic hypotheses, with a focus on distributional mechanisms and institutions.

    Related DocumentsCite