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  1. Subsistence and the evolution of religionPeoples, Hervey C. - Human Nature, 2012 - 3 Hypotheses

    This study exmaines the presence of High Gods in societies as a function of subsistence type, population size, and stratification. High Gods are thought to be a mechanism to encourage collective action in the face of environmental challenges. Animal husbandry was found to be a strong predictor of High Gods, especially gods that are active in human affairs or morally supportive.

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  2. Monotheism and gender status: a cross-societal studyStover, Ronald G. - Social Forces, 1984 - 2 Hypotheses

    This study examines the relationship between society and ideology focusing on gender status and religious beliefs. Hypotheses are tested to characterize the relationship and determine the impact of subsistence pattern on this interaction.

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  3. Dependence nurturance and monotheism: a cross-cultural studyTerry, Roger L. - The Journal of Social Psychology, 1971 - 2 Hypotheses

    The main premise of the present study is to investigate the relationship between monotheism and dependence nurturance during early childhood and adulthood. Terry notes the human need to explain and understand the world, and theorizes that this understanding derives from personal experience, learned information, and supernatural explanation. Terry tests the hypothesis that supernatural explanations (monothestic beliefs) will be formulated if individuals cannot depend on their own experiences and/or others to reduce uncertainty (a result of independence training).

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  4. Gender status, monotheism, and social complexity: response to GrayHope, Christine A. - Social Forces, 1987 - 1 Hypotheses

    A response to Gray's critique of Hope and Stover's original paper "Monotheism and gender status: a cross-societal study" (1984). The authors address questions regarding their methods. They also counter the suggestion that social complexity acts as an overriding variable to explain the relationship originally found between gender status and religious belief.

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  5. Naming and identity: a cross-cultural study of personal naming practicesAlford, Richard - , 1987 - 14 Hypotheses

    This book examines naming practices cross-culturally. The author posits that naming practices help to both reflect and create conceptions of personal identity. Several correlations between name meanings and practices and various sociocultural variables are presented.

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  6. Alliances and ritual ecstasy: human responses to resource stressHayden, Brian - Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 1987 - 3 Hypotheses

    This article hypothesizes that ritual ecstasy was selected for as a way for hunter-gatherers to cope with resource uncertainty by unifying separate groups. Results support this hypothesis and suggest a relationship between resource stress and deities as well as dependence on animals and presence of zoomorphic deities.

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  7. Hunter-gatherers and the origins of religionPeoples, Hervey C. - Human Nature, 2016 - 6 Hypotheses

    What is the evolutionary sequence of beliefs in hunter-gatherers? The authors attempt to answer this question by reconstructing the development of various traits in traditional societies using phylogenetic and linguistic source trees. Testing for correlated evolution between this reconstruction and population history as proxied by linguistic classification suggests the presence of animism at profound time depth, aligning with classical anthropological religious theory put forth by E.B. Tylor. Coevolutions between other religious concepts including shamanism, ancestor worship, active ancestor worship, high gods, active high gods, and belief in an afterlife are also examined.

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  8. The birth of the gods; the origin of primitive beliefsSwanson, Guy E. - , 1960 - 10 Hypotheses

    This book investigates the origins of supernatural and religious beliefs. The author tests associations between various types of beliefs (e.g. witchcraft, monotheism) and various societal characteristics (e.g. mobility, class stratification). Many hypotheses are supported. Theoretical discussion is included, and the author posits that “the belief in a particular kind of spirit springs from experiences with a type of persisting sovereign group whose area of jurisdiction corresponds to that attributed to the spirit” (175).

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  9. Farming and Fighting: An Empirical Analysis of the Ecological-Evolutionary Theory of the Incidence of WarfareEff, E. Anthon - Structure and Dynamics, 2012 - 13 Hypotheses

    In this article, the authors seek to reevaluate Nolan's (2003) study on the primary determinants of war. They reanalyze his hypotheses with what they claim are more robust measures and methodology. They conclude that there is only a little evidence supporting Nolan's theories, that more productive technology and higher population density predict war, and that overall ecological-evolutionary and sociopolitical explanations of war are equally supported by empirical data.

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  10. Monotheism, materialism, and collective purpose: an analysis of underhill's correlationsSwanson, Guy E. - American Journal of Sociology, 1975 - 1 Hypotheses

    This article contests Underhill’s (1975) claim that monotheism is associated more strongly with subsistence than political organization in preindustrial societies. The author asserts that when political organization is held constant, there is no relationship between subsistence strategy and monotheism. Number of sovereign groups is found to be a good predictor of monotheism.

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