Found 456 Documents across 46 Pages (0.009 seconds)
  1. Size of color lexicon: interaction of cultural and biological factorsEmber, Melvin - American Anthropologist, 1978 - 4 Hypotheses

    Different languages contain different numbers of basic colors. One interpretation is that more complex societies will have more basic color terms. Another interpretation is that peoples with less pigmented eyes will have more basic color terms. This paper suggests that both interpretations are necessary in order to predict the number of basic color terms.

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  2. Color term salienceHays, David G. - American Anthropologist, 1972 - 3 Hypotheses

    This paper examines the Berlin-Kay color salience theory and offers four correlates of color salience: earliness of introduction, brevity of expression, frequency of use, and frequency of mention in ethnographic literature. All four correlations support the Berlin-Kay theory. The authors suggest that salience may be “an important general principle of cultural evolution” (1107).

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  3. Basic color terms: their universality and evolutionBerlin, Brent - , 1969 - 1 Hypotheses

    The research presented in this book challenges the notion that languages develop color terms independently of other languages. Authors find a universal inventory of eleven basic color categories from which the basic color terms are drawn. Authors also find an apparent fixed sequence of evolutionary stages through which a language must pass as its color vocabulary increases. A postive correlation between cultural complexity and complexity of color vocabulary is observed.

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  4. Color terms in folk tales: a cross-cultural studyBolton, Ralph - Cross-Cultural Research, 1979 - 1 Hypotheses

    Using a sample derived from the available folk tale literature, researchers test whether the salience of color terms in folk tales follow the evolutionary sequence put forth by Berlin and Kay (1969). Results support the hypothesis.

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  5. Semantic typology and spatial conceptualizationPederson, Eric - Language, 1998 - 1 Hypotheses

    The authors design and implement two tasks requiring linguistic and non-linguistic spatial reference across a linguistically-diverse sample in order to examine the relationship between language and cognition cross-culturally. The results, which indicate large conceptual variation in frame of spatial reference across as well as strong correlation between use of absolute descriptors and absolute cognitive representations within language communities, suggest that language structure may actively shape the systems of spatial representation available to different cultural groups.

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  6. Emotion semantics show both cultural variation and universal structureJackson, Joshua Conrad - Science, 2019 - 3 Hypotheses

    Researchers looked at the meaning of various emotion concepts, 'emotion semantics' in an attempt to determine the patterns and processes behind meaning cross-culturally. They used maps of colexification patterns (where semantically related concepts are named with the same word), adjusted Rand indices (ARIs) which indicated the similarities of two community's network structures, and various psychophysiological dimensions to test relationships and patterns of variability /structure in emotion semantics. These methods shed light on the underlying mechanisms behind emotions, both their words and their meanings in languages across the world. Their findings show substantial difference in language families and relationships between geographic proximity of language families and subsequent variation in emotion colexification tied to an evolutionary relationship, while also finding cultural universals in emotion colexification networks with languages primarily differentiating emotions on the basis of valence and activation.

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  7. Cross-cultural correlates of the consonant-vowel (cv) syllableMunroe, Robert L. - Cross-Cultural Research, 1996 - 2 Hypotheses

    This study examines whether language construction, specifically the number of consonant-vowel syllables, will be related to the environment and literacy of a society. Empirical analysis suggests that consonant-vowel syllables are more common in warmer climates and less common in written languages.

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  8. Naming the days of the week: a cross-language study of lexical acculturationBrown, Cecil H. - Current Anthropology, 1989 - 1 Hypotheses

    This paper provides a linguistic study of the effect of lexical acculturation on the names given to days of the week. Findings show that loan words are used most frequently adopted for weekend days, followed by the days of the week that are closest to the weekends, and least frequently adopted for the days in the middle of the seven-day cycle.

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  9. Usage frequency and lexical class determine the evolution of kinship terms in Indo-EuropeanRácz, Péter - Royal Society Open Science, 2019 - 2 Hypotheses

    Previous research has found that words are replaced faster in language vocabularies the less the word is used, whereas words that are used more frequently endure longer. Drawing from this theory, the authors of this article propose two questions: 1) Is the rate of replacement for Indo-European kinship terms correlated with their usage frequency? 2) How does this relationship differ between kinship terms and core vocabulary? Using phylogenetic comparative methods to analyze 10 kinship categories from 47 Indo-European languages, the authors find that more frequently used kinship terms tend to be replaced at a much slower rate than less frequently used words. Furthermore, this relationship between word replacement rate and usage frequency is stronger for kinship terms than it is for core vocabulary terms.

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  10. Semes and genes in africaHewlett, Barry S. - Current Anthropology, 2002 - 4 Hypotheses

    Genetic, linguistic, and geographic data can be used to explain the distribution of cultural units ("semes") and to understand the evolutionary mechanisms of culture. Three broad models of cultural transmission attempt to explain why cultures share semes: (1) Cultural diffusion, emphasizing horizontal transmission. (2) Local adaptation, where trail-and-error learning leads to the independent adoption of semes by different peoples living in similar environments. (3) Demic diffusion, which emphasizes vertical and frequency-dependent transmission. Authors test the explanatory power of each model using cultural, genetic, linguistic and geographic data from 36 African cultures.

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