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  1. Correlates of monogamy in human groups: tests of some sociobiological hypothesesGray, J. Patrick - Behavior Science Research, 1984 - 7 Hypotheses

    This study re-examines the hypotheses offered by Kleiman (1977) linking monogamy in humans to monogamy in other animals. Of seven hypotheses, only two were weakly supported when using a cross-cultural analysis.

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  2. Subsistence practices and human sexual dimorphism of statureWolfe, Linda D. - Journal of Human Evolution, 1982 - 2 Hypotheses

    This study tests the validity of two previous diachronic studies examining the relationship between subsistence strategy and sexual dimorphism of stature with synchronic data. The authors find that neither hypothesis is valid.

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  3. Female status, food security, and stature sexual dimorphism: Testing mate choice as a mechanism in human self-domesticationGleeson, Ben Thomas - American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 2018 - 1 Hypotheses

    The present study examines the effect of social status on stature sexual dimorphism and whether food security acts as a mediator for this relationship. In societies where females have high social status and can exercise mate choice, there is lower stature sexual dimorphism. Food security enhances these results. Conversely, there is greater stature sexual dimorphism in societies where females have low social status and cannot exercise mate choice, especially if there is food insecurity.

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  4. Sexual dimorphism in stature and women's work: a phylogenetic cross-cultural analysisHolden, Clare - American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 1999 - 3 Hypotheses

    This article presents a phylogenetic approach to studying sexual dimorphism of stature. Results show a significant association between sexual division of labor and sexual dimorphism of stature.

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  5. Sexual dimorphisms and breeding systems in pinnipeds, ungulates, primates, and humansAlexander, Richard D. - Evolutionary Biology and Human Social Behavior: An Anthropological Perspective, 1979 - 1 Hypotheses

    This study examines the relationship between sexual dimorphism and degree of polygyny. Authors test this relationship in both humans and non-human species. In non-human species, every correlation between sexual dimorphism (measured by body length) and degree of polygyny was significant. In human populations, sexual dimporhism was not related to degree of polygyny, however, there were some differences between populations with socially imposed monogomy and those with ecologically imposed monogamy.

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  6. Human marriage systems and sexual dimorphism in statureGaulin, Steven JC - American journal of physical anthropology, 1992 - 2 Hypotheses

    The researchers operationalize new measures of Socially Imposed Monogamy (SIM) and Ecologically Imposed Monogamy (EIM) using scores from Murdock's (1986) Ethnographic Atlas in order to reevaluate Alexander et al.'s (1979) findings that sexual stature dimorphism is higher in SIM (monogamous and highly stratified) and polygynous societies compared to EIM (monogamous and egalitarian) ones. The expected associations between marriage system and sexual dimorphism are not robustly significant; however, an interaction effect is discovered between marriage system and stratification with regard to dimorphism.

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  7. Latitude and intersocietal variation of human sexual dimorphism of statureWolfe, Linda D. - Human Ecology, 1982 - 2 Hypotheses

    This article examines the relationship between sexual dimorphism of stature and latitude; data support the association. The authors also find support for an association between latitude and human marriage systems, a variable proposed by Alexander (1979) to explain variation in sexual dimorphism of stature. When societies are categorized by latitude, the relationships between marriage systems and sexual dimorphism do not reach significance. Overall the authors emphasize the influence of environmental adaptation on sexual dimorphism rather than an explanation solely focused on male-male competition.

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  8. Height and sexual dimorphism of stature among human societiesGray, J. Patrick - American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 1980 - 6 Hypotheses

    This article explores the relationship between sexual dimorphism of stature and variables of marriage, diet, subsistence and environment. Significant associations were found between security and plentifulness of food supply, protein availability, and sexual dimorphism of stature.

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  9. Was the Duchess of Windsor right?: A cross-cultural review of the socioecology of ideals of female body shapeAnderson, Judith L. - Ethology and Sociobiology, 1992 - 7 Hypotheses

    Cultures vary widely in regards to beauty standards for female body fat: while industrialized nations typically prefer thinness in women, ethnographic reports indicate that plumpness is valued in many small-scale societies. Here the authors evaluate several hypotheses that relate variation in female body fat preference to variation in socioecology such as food storage, climate, male social dominance, valuation and restriction of women's work, and female stress during adolescence.

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  10. Universal and variable leadership dimensions across human societiesGarfield, Zachary H. - Evolution and Human Behavior, 2020 - 6 Hypotheses

    This study seeks to better understand different forms of leadership across non-WEIRD (Western, Educated, Industrialized, Rich, and Democratic) societies, and tests evolutionary theories regarding the qualities of leaders, their functions, and the costs and benefits they incur and provide as a part of their leadership. The authors assess the various aspects of leaders and leadership by coding 109 dimensions of leadership as represented in eHRAF World Cultures, using the Probability Sample Files, comprised on 60 cultures. By assessing the prevalence of each of these dimensions in the various cultures under consideration, the authors were able to ascertain some largely universal characteristics of leaders: that they 1) were judged intelligent and knowledgeable; 2) resolved conflicts; and 3) received material and social benefits. They also found that other dimensions varied by considerably group context (e.g., kin group leaders tended to be older), subsistence strategy (e.g., hunter-gatherer leaders tend to lack coercive authority), and gender (e.g., female leaders are more associated with family contexts). Further analyses showed that followers and leaders both benefited from leadership, and that shamans constitute a new brand of leader that both utilizes prestige and dominance in order to effectively rule.

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