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  1. The birth of the gods; the origin of primitive beliefsSwanson, Guy E. - , 1960 - 10 Hypotheses

    This book investigates the origins of supernatural and religious beliefs. The author tests associations between various types of beliefs (e.g. witchcraft, monotheism) and various societal characteristics (e.g. mobility, class stratification). Many hypotheses are supported. Theoretical discussion is included, and the author posits that “the belief in a particular kind of spirit springs from experiences with a type of persisting sovereign group whose area of jurisdiction corresponds to that attributed to the spirit” (175).

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  2. The birth of the gods revisited: a partial replication of guy swanson's (1960) cross-cultural study of religionPeregrine, Peter N. - Cross-Cultural Research, 1996 - 2 Hypotheses

    This article retests several hypotheses from Swanson’s (1960) study on the origins of religious belief. The author finds support for an association between high gods and large communities, multiple levels of political hierarchy, and social differentiation. No support is found for Swanson’s other hypotheses concerning polytheism, ancestral spirits, reincarnation, the soul, witchcraft, and morality and their relations to social, political, and economic variables.

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  3. Do women have higher social status in hunting societies without high gods?Gray, J. Patrick - Social Forces, 1987 - 5 Hypotheses

    This article offers a critique of Stover and Hope (1984). Gray challenges their findings and suggests that a third variable, sovereign groups, explains the correlation between monotheism and gender status.

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  4. Factor analysis of a cross-cultural sampleMcNett, Charles W., Jr. - Behavior Science Notes, 1973 - 3 Hypotheses

    This study employs factor analysis to develop a settlement pattern scale of cultural complexity. Political, economic, and religious factors are identified and implications for the structure of the cultural system are discussed.

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  5. Sovereign groups, subsistence activities, and the presence of a high god in primitive societiesSimpson, John H. - The Religious Dimension: New Directions in Research, 1979 - 1 Hypotheses

    This article investigates material and social predictors of belief in a high god. The author introduces a new variable, the inertness of subsistence raw materials, to be compared with Swanson’s (1960) variable representing the number of sovereign groups. Both variables were significant predictors of belief in high gods. Relevant theory is discussed.

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  6. Economic and political antecedents of monotheism: a cross-cultural studyUnderhill, Ralph - American Journal of Sociology, 1975 - 2 Hypotheses

    Examines the cross-cultural correlates of belief in a high god or supreme creator. The results are compared to and found to be inconsistent with the theoretical perspectives of Swanson (1960) and Durkheim (1912).

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  7. Oaths, autonomic ordeals, and powerRoberts, John M. - Cross-Cultural Approaches: Readings in Comparative Research, 1967 - 14 Hypotheses

    This chapter examines the presence of oaths and autonomic ordeals in relation to various socioeconomic variables. Several hypotheses are presented, all are supported.

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  8. Trance and possession: studies of charismatic influenceSwanson, Guy E. - Review of Religious Research, 1978 - 4 Hypotheses

    This study examines correlates of trance and possession in pre-industrial societies. Results suggest that the presence of trance/possession is associated with subsistence, number of jurisdictional levels, and community decision-making.

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  9. The search for a guardian spirit: a process of empowerment in simpler societiesSwanson, Guy E. - Ethnology, 1973 - 5 Hypotheses

    The complex set of beliefs and practices in which the cult of the guardian spirit consisted is examined.

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  10. Gender status, monotheism, and social complexity: response to GrayHope, Christine A. - Social Forces, 1987 - 1 Hypotheses

    A response to Gray's critique of Hope and Stover's original paper "Monotheism and gender status: a cross-societal study" (1984). The authors address questions regarding their methods. They also counter the suggestion that social complexity acts as an overriding variable to explain the relationship originally found between gender status and religious belief.

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