Found 578 Documents across 58 Pages (0.007 seconds)
  1. Human Residence PatternsWalker, Robert S. - Emerging Trends in the Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2015 - 2 Hypotheses

    The present research examines the residence patterns of 34 hunter-gatherer societies and 34 lowland South American horticulturalist societies using census data. Contrary to the traditional view of patrilocal postmarital residence being prevalent, the present findings suggest more multilocality in residence patterns for hunter-gatherer and horticulturalist societies. The author concludes that hunter-gatherers are slightly patrilocal and horticulturalists slightly matrilocal.

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  2. Marrying kin in small‐scale societiesWalker, Robert S. - American Journal of Human Biology, 2014 - 1 Hypotheses

    The authors examine degree of intensiveness (kin-relatedness) among foraging and agropastoralist societies, predicting that hunter-gatherers will pursue more extensive kinship networks in order to maximize residential options in the case of unpredictability or uneven geographic distribution of food resources. Support is found for the hypothesis, and it is suggested that while extensive fission-fusion dynamics are beneficial in foraging systems, the increase in cooperation in large-scale agricultural settlements is aided by norms which encourage kin marriage and relatedness.

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  3. Residential variation among hunter-gatherersEmber, Carol R. - Behavior Science Research, 1975 - 7 Hypotheses

    This study explores predictors of variation in two dimensions of marital residence patterns among hunter-gatherers: 1) the tendency toward patrilocality versus matrilocality and 2) the tendency toward unilocality versus bilocality.

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  4. Evolutionary history of hunter-gatherer marriage practicesWalker, Robert S. - PLoS ONE, 2011 - 1 Hypotheses

    This study attempts to reconstruct ancestral marriage practices using hunter-gathers' phylogenies based on mitochondrial DNA sequences. Data suggest that arranged marriages and brideprice/bridewealth likely go back at least to the first modern human migrations out of Africa and that early ancestral human societies probably had low levels of polygyny.

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  5. Causes, consequences, and kin bias of human group fissionsWalker, Robert S. - Human Nature, 2014 - 2 Hypotheses

    This study examines instances of group fission cross-culturally. Results suggest that internal political conflict and resource scarcity are the two most common causes of group fission. Results also suggest that group fission tends to occur along kin lines.

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  6. A Cross-Cultural Summary: Hunter-GatherersTextor, Robert B. - , 1967 - 9 Hypotheses

    Textor summarizes cross-cultural findings on societies where subsistence is primarily by 'food gathering' which includes hunting, fishing, and gathering.

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  7. Power and inhibition: a revision of the magical potency theoryWanner, Eric - The drinking man, 1972 - 3 Hypotheses

    This book chapter (4) follows up suggestions from a previous chapter (3) by McClelland et.al. that in non-solidary societies heavy drinking is associated with conflict about personal power and alcohol provides a way of acting out impulses aimed at impacting others. Support was found for this theory using an analysis of words in folktales.

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  8. Pacifying Hunter-GatherersHames, Raymond - Human Nature, 2019 - 1 Hypotheses

    In this article Hames addresses the long-standing disagreements between evolutionary theories regarding human warfare (more specifically between Rousseauian and Hobbesian frameworks). This study posits that while most current and previous research focuses on the discrepancies between the frequency and intensity with which warfare takes place between hunter-gatherer and large-scale societies, the ability for societies to live in peace with their neighbors despite the possibility for warfare, is the most important evolutionary trait. Coexisting peacefully is what distinguishes human socially and politically from chimpanzees whereas warfare itself is a more primitive trait humans share with previous ancestors. Hames concludes that going forward, use of phylogenetic methods to control for common ancestry, and use of archaeological data would lead to new and more comprehensive findings. Although largely a review of principal warfare literature, Hames does present an original statistical finding on adult violence mortality which is reported below.

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  9. Female of the speciesMartin, M. Kay - , 1975 - 12 Hypotheses

    This book discusses the role of women cross-culturally. The authors use a cross-cultural sample to examine the differences between men and women in contribution to subsistence as well as the social juxtaposition of the sexes in foraging, horticultural, agricultural, pastoral, and industrial societies.

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  10. Comment on gaulin and schlegel (1980)Wolfe, Linda D. - Ethology and Sociobiology, 1981 - 1 Hypotheses

    This comment suggests methodological flaws in Gaulin and Schlegel’s (1980) article on male parental certainty and investment practices. The authors take issue with multiple coding decisions and suggest that the findings from the 1980 study ought to be rejected; data does not support a positive association between male parental certainty and investment practices.

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