Found 871 Documents across 88 Pages (0.015 seconds)
  1. Hunter-gatherers have less famine than agriculturalistsBerbesque, J. Colette - Biology Letters, 2014 - 2 Hypotheses

    This study tests the common belief that hunter-gatherers suffer more famine than other subsistence types. Controlling for habitat quality, authors examine the relationship between famine and subsistence type and find that hunter-gatherers actually experience significantly less famine than other subsistence types.

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  2. Violence in the ethnographic record: results of cross-cultural research on war and aggressionEmber, Carol R. - Troubled Times: Violence and Warfare in the Past, 1997 - 7 Hypotheses

    This paper reviews the results of the author's cross-cultural studies of war and aggression and their implications for prehistory.

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  3. Resource stress and subsistence diversification across societiesEmber, Carol R. - Nature Sustainability, 2020 - 4 Hypotheses

    Using a cross-cultural sample of 91 societies, this paper draws on ecological theory to test if unpredictable environments will favor subsistence diversification. The general hypothesis is that societies with high climate unpredictability and resource stress would exhibit more subsistence diversity than societies in more stable climates. The authors examined four environmental and resource stress variables while controlling for temperature variance, subsistence activity, and phylogeny. Support was found for 2 of the 4 variables--chronic scarcity and environmental instability. In the discussion they suggest that more commonly observed events (e.g. annual hunger and climate unpredictability) may give people more motivation to change subsistence than rarer events (e.g. natural hazards and famine).

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  4. Sexual dimorphism in the human post-reproductive life-span: possible causesGaulin, Steven J.C. - Journal of Human Evolution, 1980 - 2 Hypotheses

    This study tests possible explanations for sexual dimorphism in human post-reproductive life-spans. The author focuses on explanations involving male paternal investment and finds that men in agricultural societies are more likely to invest in their offspring than men in hunter-gatherer societies.

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  5. Exploring the thrifty genotype's food-shortage assumptions: a cross-cultural comparison of ethnographic accounts of food security among foraging and agricultural societiesBenyshek, Daniel C. - American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 2006 - 3 Hypotheses

    This article tests the assumption that foragers are more likely to experience regular and severe food shortages than sedentary agriculturalists. The results indicate that there is no statistical difference in the quantity of available food or the frequency or extent of food shortages between preindustrial foragers, recent foragers, and agriculturalists.

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  6. Why on earth?: Evaluating hypotheses about the physiological functions of human geophagyYoung, Sera L. - The Quarterly Review of Biology, 2011 - 5 Hypotheses

    The author tests various hypotheses regarding cross-cultural occurrence of geophagy, the eating of earth. Nearly 500 years of references to geophagy were compiled into the Database on Human Geophagy, which was then used to examine biological justifications for this little-understood behavior.

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  7. Climate Variability, Drought, and the Belief that High Gods Are Associated with Weather in Nonindustrial SocietiesEmber, Carol R. - Weather, Climate, and Society, 2021 - 5 Hypotheses

    The authors of this study explore the relationship between climate variability and beliefs that high gods are associated with the weather. As predicted, they find significant correlations between these beliefs and dry climates. They then evaluate how these findings contribute to their previous understanding of resource stress and its association to beliefs in high gods.

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  8. Economic Systems of Foraging, Agricultural, and Industrial SocietiesFrederic L. Pryor - , 2005 - 26 Hypotheses

    The second and third parts of this book classify the economic systems of foraging and agricultural societies in the SCCS based on correlations between their institutions of property an distribution. These economic types are then examined for relationships with other social, political, demographic, and environmental factors in order to draw tentative conclusions regarding the origins of the Agricultural and Industrial Revolutions. The fourth part of the book uses cross-national data to examine similar associations in industrial/service economies, and is not included here.

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  9. Gender inequality in childhood: toward a life course perspectiveBaunach, Dawn Michelle - Gender Issues, 2001 - 12 Hypotheses

    This article builds upon gender inequality theory to examine childhood gender inequality in preindustrial societies. Multivariate and cluster analysis are used.

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  10. Relationships between subsistence and age at weaning in "preindustrial" societiesSellen, Daniel W. - Human Nature, 2001 - 3 Hypotheses

    This study tests the weaning food availability hypothesis, that both the introduction of foods other than breastmilk and the cessation of breastfeeding will vary by society's subsistence type. This hypothesis has implications for demography, as accelerated weaning can lead to increases in both mothers' fertility (due to decreased birth intervals) and infant mortality (due to the presence of pathogens in new foods).

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