Found 750 Documents across 75 Pages (0.013 seconds)
  1. Differences between tight and loose cultures: a 33-nation studyGelfand, Michele J. - Science, 2011 - 5 Hypotheses

    This article explores differences between "tight" cultures ("have many strong norms and low tolerance of deviant behavior") and "loose" cultures ("have weak social norms and high tolerance of deviant behavior"). The tightness-looseness measure manifests in a myriad of macro and micro phenomena, from governance and religiosity to individual psychological processes. This study investigates these phenomena in modern nations rather than traditional societies. Potential ecological, historical, and socio-political predictors of tightness-looseness are also examined.

    Related DocumentsCite
  2. Culture and National well-being: should societies emphasize freedom or constraint?Harrington, Jesse R. - PLoS ONE, 2015 - 9 Hypotheses

    The purpose of the present study is to provide insight on the debate concerning how best to organize societies: with more freedom (looseness) or with more constraint (tightness). In a comparison of 32 nations, Harrington, Boski, and Gelfand examine the relationship between tightness/looseness and three dimensions of societal well-being: psychosocial, health, and political/economic outcomes. Findings indicate that excessive constraint and/or freedom contribute to poorer psychosocial, health, and economic/political outcomes, as well as overall national-level well-being. These results suggest that a balance of freedom and constraint is associated with optimal societal well-being.

    Related DocumentsCite
  3. Male genital mutilation: an adaptation to sexual conflictWilson, Christopher G. - Evolution and Human Behavior, 2008 - 8 Hypotheses

    This article examines the "sexual conflict" hypothesis which predicts that male genital mutilation should be associated with polygyny and a reduction in the frequency of extramarital sex. Male genital mutilation (MGM) rituals should be highly public and facilitate access to social benefits. Support for these assumptions is provided.

    Related DocumentsCite
  4. On Weber, pathogens and culture: a global empirical analysis of religion and individualismCiftci, Sabri - Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 2022 - 4 Hypotheses

    This study analyzes Weber's religious ethic thesis by investigating the relationship of religiosity on economic, social, and expressive individualism. The author found that religiosity increased economic individualism, and decreased social and expressive individualism. Under the notion that natural disasters prompt collectivistic defensive mechanisms, the author demonstrated some support that low levels of pathogen prevalence strengthened religiosity's relationships with social and expressive individualism, but not for economic individualism. The author did not find support for Weber's idea that Protestation will increase economic individualism and other religions, such as Islam, decrease economic individualism.

    Related DocumentsCite
  5. The frequency of warfare: an evolutionary perspectiveLeavitt, Gregory C. - Sociological Inquiry, 1977 - 3 Hypotheses

    Thi study tests a hypothesis on the relationship between frequency of warfare and sociocultural development.

    Related DocumentsCite
  6. Effects of cultural tightness and collectivism on self-concept and causal attributionsCarpenter, Sandra - Cross-Cultural Research, 2000 - 2 Hypotheses

    A small sample (16 cultures) is used to examine the influence of cultural variables on the psychological constructs of self-concept and causal attributions. Results suggest that valued goals (collectivism vs. individualism) and group norms (tightness vs. looseness) both influence self-concept and causal attributions.

    Related DocumentsCite
  7. General evolution and Durkheim's hypothesis of crime frequency: A cross-cultural testLeavitt, Gregory C. - The Sociological Quarterly, 1992 - 3 Hypotheses

    This paper is an investigation into the relationship between social differentiation as a proxy for societal 'development' and various categories of crime. A positive relationship is interpreted by the author as empirical cross-cultural support for Durkheim's theory that these two factors will increase together as parallel processes of 'sociocultural evolution'.

    Related DocumentsCite
  8. The relationship between cultural tightness-looseness and COVID-19 cases and deaths: a global analysisGelfand, Michele J. - The Lancet Planetary Health, 2021 - 2 Hypotheses

    This article examines the relationship between the tightness-looseness of a culture and the variation of COVID-19 cases and deaths through October 2020. With COVID-19 data retrieved from Our World in Data from 57 countries with tightness-looseness figures, the article found the cultures with high levels of tightness had fewer COVID-19 cases and deaths when compared to countries with high levels of looseness. Results suggest support of the evolutionary game theoretic model proposing that people in tight cultures may cooperate with more urgency when under collective threat than people in loose cultures.

    Related DocumentsCite
  9. A global analysis of cultural tightness in non-industrial societiesJackson, Joshua Conrad - Proceedings of the Royal Society, 2020 - 12 Hypotheses

    This article builds on previous cross-country and cross-state research into Tightness-Looseness (TL) theory, which proposes relationships between the incidence of ecological threat and cultural tightness, as well as tightness’ downstream effects on belief in a moralizing high god, inter-group contact and authoritarian leadership. To evaluate the generalizability of TL theory beyond complex cultures, the authors test these relationships among 86 nonindustrial societies from the ethnographic record. A structural equation model is presented of the results for nonindustrial societies; it is generally in accord with previous findings from more complex societies. Because the nonindustrial sample is more variable, they also look at relationships between societal complexity and kinship heterogeneity, aspects that vary in nonindustrial societies.

    Related DocumentsCite
  10. Courtship patterns associated with freedom of choice of spouseRosenblatt, Paul C. - Journal of Marriage and the Family, 1972 - 2 Hypotheses

    This article investigates several correlates of freedom of choice of spouse, including general male-female contact and antagonism in premarital male-female interaction. Particular attention is paid to dances in the role of making contact with a spouse.

    Related DocumentsCite