Found 813 Documents across 82 Pages (0.007 seconds)
  1. Starvation and famine: cross-cultural codes and some hypothesis testsDirks, Robert - Cross-Cultural Research, 1993 - 8 Hypotheses

    "This article provides a set of codes that rate the starvation and famine experiences of societies in the Standard Cross-Cultural Sample. The codes are used to test several theoretical generalizations regarding the underlying causes of famine." Results indicate that seasonal starvation and direct entitlements are the strongest predictors of famine.

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  2. Local knowledge and practice in disaster relief: A worldwide cross-cultural comparison of coping mechanismsPierro, Rachele - International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 2022 - 13 Hypotheses

    The article discusses the importance of incorporating local knowledge and strategies into sustainable climate change adaptation. The authors examined 90 societies from the ethnographic record to document the coping mechanisms and contingency plans used by societies around the world in response to natural hazards. They classified coping mechanisms into four types: technological, subsistence, economic, and religious. The study finds that most societies employ multiple types of coping mechanisms and that technological coping mechanisms are most common in response to fast-onset hazards, while religious coping mechanisms are most common in response to slow-onset hazards. The study also finds that religious and nonreligious coping strategies are not mutually exclusive and are often used in conjunction with each other.

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  3. Violence in the ethnographic record: results of cross-cultural research on war and aggressionEmber, Carol R. - Troubled Times: Violence and Warfare in the Past, 1997 - 7 Hypotheses

    This paper reviews the results of the author's cross-cultural studies of war and aggression and their implications for prehistory.

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  4. Resource stress and subsistence diversification across societiesEmber, Carol R. - Nature Sustainability, 2020 - 4 Hypotheses

    Using a cross-cultural sample of 91 societies, this paper draws on ecological theory to test if unpredictable environments will favor subsistence diversification. The general hypothesis is that societies with high climate unpredictability and resource stress would exhibit more subsistence diversity than societies in more stable climates. The authors examined four environmental and resource stress variables while controlling for temperature variance, subsistence activity, and phylogeny. Support was found for 2 of the 4 variables--chronic scarcity and environmental instability. In the discussion they suggest that more commonly observed events (e.g. annual hunger and climate unpredictability) may give people more motivation to change subsistence than rarer events (e.g. natural hazards and famine).

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  5. Quantitative Analysis of Drought Management Strategies across Ethnographically-Researched African Societies: A Pilot StudyBiagetti, Stefano - Land, 2021 - 4 Hypotheses

    In this pilot study, the authors investigate the relationships between both subsistence types and environmental conditions, and various coping mechanisms for drought in 35 societies in Africa. Using Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA), they find subsistence strategies to have a more significant correlation with the distribution of coping strategies for drought than environmental conditions.

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  6. Mapping the middle ground between foragers and farmersDenham, Tim - Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, 2022 - 3 Hypotheses

    This study seeks to investigate the little-understood intermediate region between farming and foraging subsistence strategies. The authors seek to evaluate the extent to which such "middle-ground" subsistence methods actually exist, whether there is any geographical patterning to them, and if different crop assemblages/dependencies make middle-ground subsistence strategies more or less likely. They find that agro-pastoral, cereal-based societies in Africa and Eurasia are more likely to be dependent on farming (defined here as including both cultivation and animal husbandry), whereas societies in North America and those reliant on root crops and arboriculture in the wet tropics incorporate both farming and foraging. They conclude that there is likely more of a "middle-ground" between foraging and farming than has typically been allowed for in the literature.

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  7. Causes of toolkit variation among hunter-gatherers: a test of four competing hypothesesCollard, Mark - Canadian Journal of Archaeology, 2005 - 4 Hypotheses

    This study tests four hypotheses that propose potential environmental and social predictors of toolkit size and complexity among hunter-gatherers. Hypotheses predicting relationships between population size, residential mobility, type of food resources and toolkit structure are not supported. Risk of resource failure is the only variable that is significantly associated with toolkit structure.

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  8. The global geography of human subsistenceGavin, Michael C. - Royal Society Open Science, 2018 - 8 Hypotheses

    In this article, the authors seek to determine cross-culturally valid predictors of dominant types of human subsistence around the world. They did this by formulating multiple models that incorporate different combinations of environmental, geographic, and social factors. These models were then used to test various hypotheses posed throughout the anthropological literature surrounding factors that determine dominant subsistence strategies.

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  9. Alliances and ritual ecstasy: human responses to resource stressHayden, Brian - Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 1987 - 3 Hypotheses

    This article hypothesizes that ritual ecstasy was selected for as a way for hunter-gatherers to cope with resource uncertainty by unifying separate groups. Results support this hypothesis and suggest a relationship between resource stress and deities as well as dependence on animals and presence of zoomorphic deities.

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  10. Socioecology shapes child and adolescent time allocation in twelve hunter-gatherer and mixed-subsistence forager societiesLew-Levy, Sheina - Nature Scientific Reports, 2022 - 3 Hypotheses

    This paper seeks to understand the roles played by children and adolescents in hunter-gatherer societies in relation to their social and ecological context. The authors set out to investigate how environmental factors, ecological risk, and the energetic contributions of adult men and women to food production may have influenced children/adolescent allocation of time to child care, domestic work, food production, and play. In order to carry out this study, the authors logged the behaviors of 690 children and adolescents from twelve hunter-gatherer and mixed-subsistence societies (Agta, Aka, Baka, BaYaka, Dukha, Hadza, Matsi-genka, Maya, Mayangna, Mikea, Pume, and Tsimane), totaling 85,597 unique observations. The study found that harsh environmental factors were not associated with child/adolescent time allocation, but that local ecological risk such as dangerous animals and lack of water availability predicted decreased time allocation to child care and domestic work, and that increased adult female participation in food production was associated with less time invested in child care among boys. It also found that all gendered differences in time allocation among children were stronger when men made greater contributions to food production than women. The authors interpret these results to signify that parents may play a role in preparing their children for environmental and ecological difficulty in order to help them develop skills that will help them become useful community members as adults.

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