Found 677 Documents across 68 Pages (0.01 seconds)
  1. Environmental constraints on infant care practicesWhiting, John W.M. - Handbook of Cross-Cultural Human Development, 1981 - 2 Hypotheses

    This chapter examines infant carrying practices across cultures. The author suggests that infant carrying practices are affected by both climate and history. Findings indicate regional patterns in infant carrying practices and in the borrowing of infant carrying practices within regions. Results support the hypothesis.

    Related DocumentsCite
  2. Clothing and climate in aboriginal AustraliaGilligan, Ian - Current Anthropology, 2008 - 1 Hypotheses

    This study demonstrates a correlation in Australian Aborigines between clothing and climate. Using an ethnohistorical approach, the author tests hypotheses that indicate the use of clothing as a behavioral response to environmental factors.

    Related DocumentsCite
  3. Effects of climate on certain cultural practicesWhiting, John W.M. - Explorations in Cultural Anthropology: Essays in Honor of George Peter Murdock, 1964 - 5 Hypotheses

    This study explores ecological reasons that might explain why boys are mostly circumcised in tropical regions, particularly in Africa and the insular Pacific. The author postulates a long causal chain linking: 1) tropical climate to the growing of root and fruit crops; 2) the need to keep babies on mother's milk for as long as possible where the adult diet is lacking in protein; 3) a long post-partum sex taboo as a way to space births; 4) the practice of polygyny (and associated mother-child sleeping) in the face of a long sex taboo; 5) patrilocal residence; and 6) male initiation ceremonies which are believed to result from the combination of mother-child sleeping, the long poast-partum sex taboo and patrilocal residence.

    Related DocumentsCite
  4. River density and landscape roughness are universal determinants of linguistic diversityAxelsen, Jacob Bock - Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, 2014 - 1 Hypotheses

    The authors investigate the relationship between linguistic diversity and various environmental and spatial variables associated with biodiversity. Most of these variables predict linguistic diversity variably across different continents, and more so within Africa and extended Asia (Asia, the Pacific, and Australia) than within Europe and the Americas. This divide is theorized to be a result of differences in demography and impact of colonialism between the two global regions. However, two environmental factors, landscape roughness and density of river systems, are found to be significant predictors across all global regions. The authors suggest that, as in processes of speciation, rough terrain and watercourses both create physical barriers between which languages can develop in isolation while, in the case of river junctions, also providing transportation routes whereby hybrid languages can occasionally manifest.

    Related DocumentsCite
  5. Paternal investment and the human mating systemMarlowe, Frank W. - Behavioural Processes, 2000 - 7 Hypotheses

    This article explores the interrelated roles of male parental investment (males' infant/child care and resource provisioning) and male-male competition (variation in male status) on the degree of monogamy or polygyny in a society. Marlowe argues that Degree of parental investment affects females' interest in resource-shopping versus gene-shopping. Also discussed is the idea that male-male competition affects males' inclination toward harem-defense or coercive polygyny. Particular attention is paid to variation in parental investment and male stratification across subsistence types.

    Related DocumentsCite
  6. Cultural dimensions: a factor analysis of textor's a cross-cultural summaryStewart, Robert A. C. - Behavior Science Notes, 1972 - 12 Hypotheses

    This article uses factor analysis to identify the key variables underlying the many cross-cultural associations reported by Textor (1967). Twelve factors are identified.

    Related DocumentsCite
  7. Human language diversity and the acoustic adaptation hypothesisMaddieson, Ian - Proceedings of Meetings on Acoustics, 2015 - 1 Hypotheses

    In the field of bioacoustics, the Acoustic Adaptation theory suggests that variation in vocalization across different species can be accounted for by the acoustic properties of different habitats. Here, the researchers test consonant- and vowel-heaviness in human languages against various environmental variables in order to examine the theory's potential application to our own species. The authors identify a significant negative correlation between consonant heaviness and temperature, precipitation, and tree cover, and some positive correlation with rugosity and elevation as their most important findings, while acknowledging the potentially influential roles of migration and demographic factors in producing this relationship.

    Related DocumentsCite
  8. Musical Diversity in India: A Preliminary Computational Study Using CantometricsDaikoku, Hideo - Keio SFC Journal, 2020 - 3 Hypotheses

    The authors examine musical diversity in India using cantometric data from 32 Indian societies with the goal of better understanding how music varies between and within cultures. They find very minor musical differences between language families, greater diversity between societies but within language families, and the most variation within societies.

    Related DocumentsCite
  9. The sequential evolution of land tenure normsKushnick, Geoff - Evolution and Human Behavior, 2014 - 9 Hypotheses

    In this paper, the authors utilize phylogenetic methods to reconstruct the evolution of land tenure norms among 97 Austronesian societies. They coded these norms for each society as none (N), group (G), group-kin (K), and individual (I). After formulating various models of evolution through these various stages, they used Bayesian analysis to determine support for each. They conclude with remarks about this type of evolutionary phylogenetic research as a form of "virtual archeology."

    Related DocumentsCite
  10. Language structure is partly determined by social structureLupyan, Gary - PLoS ONE, 2010 - 1 Hypotheses

    This article explores the relationship between language structure and social environment, positing that linguistic factors such as morphological complexity are associated with demographic/socio-historical factors such as number of speakers, geographic spread, and degree of language contact. Data support such an association. The authors further propose a Linguistic Niche Hypothesis suggesting that “the level of morphological specialization is a product of languages adapting to the learning constraints and the unique communicative needs of the speaker population” (7).

    Related DocumentsCite