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  1. Aztec human sacrifice: cross-cultural assessments of the ecological hypothesisWinkelman, Michael James - Ethnology, 1998 - 1 Hypotheses

    This article explores ecological, religious, and social correlates of human sacrifice and cannibalism in a cross-cultural sample. Support is found for associations between human sacrifice and population density, population pressure, war for land and resources, and a low hierarchical focus of religion. Human sacrifice among Aztecs is given particular attention.

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  2. Magico-religious practitioner types and socioeconomic conditionsWinkelman, Michael James - Cross-Cultural Research, 1986 - 12 Hypotheses

    The authors examine the relationship between magico-religious practitioner type and socioeconomic variables in order to present a typology of magico-religious practitioners. Three bases for magico-religious practitioners are discussed in terms of selection procedures and activities. Several hypotheses are empirically tested, and descriptive generalizations derived from analyses are presented.

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  3. Trance states: a theoretical model and cross-cultural analysisWinkelman, Michael James - Ethos, 1986 - 10 Hypotheses

    This article offers a detailed analysis of neuropsychopsiological processes involved in altered states of consciousness (ASC) in order to design and evaluate a psychophysiological model of trance states. Cross-cultural hypotheses concerning ASC are tested.

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  4. Shamans and other "magico-religious" healers: a cross-cultural study of their origins, nature, and social transformationsWinkelman, Michael James - Ethos, 1990 - 5 Hypotheses

    This article examines shamans and other types of magico-religious healers. Agriculture and political integration are suggested to influence the transformation of shamans into shaman/healers, healers, or possession-trance mediums.

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  5. Ritual human sacrifice promoted and sustained the evolution of stratified societiesWatts, Joseph - Nature, 2016 - 6 Hypotheses

    The social control hypothesis suggests that ritual human sacrifice may have played an important role in the evolution of social stratification, functioning to legitimize class-based power distinctions by pairing displays of ultimate authority with supernatural justifications. Authors test this hypothesis about human sacrifice with a phylogenetic analysis of 93 Austronesian cultures.

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  6. A comparative study of human sacrificeSheils, Howard Dean - Cross-Cultural Research, 1980 - 3 Hypotheses

    This study takes an economic approach in examining the practice of human sacrifice as it relates to notions of the economic value of human life. Codes are included.

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  7. Ecology, trade, and states in pre-colonial AfricaFenske, James - Journal of the European Economic Association, 2014 - 3 Hypotheses

    The author analyzes 440 Sub-Saharan African societies to test whether trade across ecologically diverse zones is predictive of degree of state centralization (state capacity or strength of state) in pre-colonial Africa. The author finds that diverse ecology is predictive of state capacity and that trade supports class stratification. The author also emphasizes the importance of historical contingency and ethnographic data consultation in understanding mechanisms in individual cases.

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  8. A glorious warrior in war: Cross-cultural evidence of honor culture, social rewards for warriors, and intergroup conflictNawata, Kengo - Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, 2019 - 4 Hypotheses

    Research sampled 143 societies from the Standard Cross Cultural Sample to test the relationship between honor culture, social rewards for warriors, and intergroup conflicts. Using mediation analysis based on multiple regression, and structural equation modeling, the research supported the theory that honor culture was positively associated with intergroup conflict, and that this relationship was mediated by social rewards for warriors.

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  9. Economic Systems of Foraging, Agricultural, and Industrial SocietiesFrederic L. Pryor - , 2005 - 26 Hypotheses

    The second and third parts of this book classify the economic systems of foraging and agricultural societies in the SCCS based on correlations between their institutions of property an distribution. These economic types are then examined for relationships with other social, political, demographic, and environmental factors in order to draw tentative conclusions regarding the origins of the Agricultural and Industrial Revolutions. The fourth part of the book uses cross-national data to examine similar associations in industrial/service economies, and is not included here.

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  10. Farming and Fighting: An Empirical Analysis of the Ecological-Evolutionary Theory of the Incidence of WarfareEff, E. Anthon - Structure and Dynamics, 2012 - 13 Hypotheses

    In this article, the authors seek to reevaluate Nolan's (2003) study on the primary determinants of war. They reanalyze his hypotheses with what they claim are more robust measures and methodology. They conclude that there is only a little evidence supporting Nolan's theories, that more productive technology and higher population density predict war, and that overall ecological-evolutionary and sociopolitical explanations of war are equally supported by empirical data.

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