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  1. Mapping the middle ground between foragers and farmersDenham, Tim - Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, 2022 - 3 Hypotheses

    This study seeks to investigate the little-understood intermediate region between farming and foraging subsistence strategies. The authors seek to evaluate the extent to which such "middle-ground" subsistence methods actually exist, whether there is any geographical patterning to them, and if different crop assemblages/dependencies make middle-ground subsistence strategies more or less likely. They find that agro-pastoral, cereal-based societies in Africa and Eurasia are more likely to be dependent on farming (defined here as including both cultivation and animal husbandry), whereas societies in North America and those reliant on root crops and arboriculture in the wet tropics incorporate both farming and foraging. They conclude that there is likely more of a "middle-ground" between foraging and farming than has typically been allowed for in the literature.

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