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  1. How Do Hunter-Gatherer Children Learn Social and Gender Norms? A Meta-Ethnographic ReviewLew-Levy, Sheina - Cross-Cultural Research, 2017 - 0 Hypotheses

    This article is a meta-ethnographic non-quantitative review of 77 publications on 33 cultures from 5 continents. The study synthesizes and discusses the process of learning social and gender norms amongst hunter gatherer societies, with a particular focus on early, middle, and late learning in childhood. Findings suggest that in early infancy learning on sharing is guided by adults, after infancy and before childhood it is guided autonomously through playgroups, before final self-driven sex segregation and gender guided behavior sets in in late childhood and early adolescence. Moderating factors include gendered task assignment and negative/positive behavioral feedback from adults. There are nor formal hypothesis tests.

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  2. Socioecology shapes child and adolescent time allocation in twelve hunter-gatherer and mixed-subsistence forager societiesLew-Levy, Sheina - Nature Scientific Reports, 2022 - 3 Hypotheses

    This paper seeks to understand the roles played by children and adolescents in hunter-gatherer societies in relation to their social and ecological context. The authors set out to investigate how environmental factors, ecological risk, and the energetic contributions of adult men and women to food production may have influenced children/adolescent allocation of time to child care, domestic work, food production, and play. In order to carry out this study, the authors logged the behaviors of 690 children and adolescents from twelve hunter-gatherer and mixed-subsistence societies (Agta, Aka, Baka, BaYaka, Dukha, Hadza, Matsi-genka, Maya, Mayangna, Mikea, Pume, and Tsimane), totaling 85,597 unique observations. The study found that harsh environmental factors were not associated with child/adolescent time allocation, but that local ecological risk such as dangerous animals and lack of water availability predicted decreased time allocation to child care and domestic work, and that increased adult female participation in food production was associated with less time invested in child care among boys. It also found that all gendered differences in time allocation among children were stronger when men made greater contributions to food production than women. The authors interpret these results to signify that parents may play a role in preparing their children for environmental and ecological difficulty in order to help them develop skills that will help them become useful community members as adults.

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