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  1. How Do Hunter-Gatherer Children Learn Social and Gender Norms? A Meta-Ethnographic ReviewLew-Levy, Sheina - Cross-Cultural Research, 2017 - 0 Hypotheses

    This article is a meta-ethnographic non-quantitative review of 77 publications on 33 cultures from 5 continents. The study synthesizes and discusses the process of learning social and gender norms amongst hunter gatherer societies, with a particular focus on early, middle, and late learning in childhood. Findings suggest that in early infancy learning on sharing is guided by adults, after infancy and before childhood it is guided autonomously through playgroups, before final self-driven sex segregation and gender guided behavior sets in in late childhood and early adolescence. Moderating factors include gendered task assignment and negative/positive behavioral feedback from adults. There are nor formal hypothesis tests.

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  2. Socioecology shapes child and adolescent time allocation in twelve hunter-gatherer and mixed-subsistence forager societiesLew-Levy, Sheina - Nature Scientific Reports, 2022 - 3 Hypotheses

    This paper seeks to understand the roles played by children and adolescents in hunter-gatherer societies in relation to their social and ecological context. The authors set out to investigate how environmental factors, ecological risk, and the energetic contributions of adult men and women to food production may have influenced children/adolescent allocation of time to child care, domestic work, food production, and play. In order to carry out this study, the authors logged the behaviors of 690 children and adolescents from twelve hunter-gatherer and mixed-subsistence societies (Agta, Aka, Baka, BaYaka, Dukha, Hadza, Matsi-genka, Maya, Mayangna, Mikea, Pume, and Tsimane), totaling 85,597 unique observations. The study found that harsh environmental factors were not associated with child/adolescent time allocation, but that local ecological risk such as dangerous animals and lack of water availability predicted decreased time allocation to child care and domestic work, and that increased adult female participation in food production was associated with less time invested in child care among boys. It also found that all gendered differences in time allocation among children were stronger when men made greater contributions to food production than women. The authors interpret these results to signify that parents may play a role in preparing their children for environmental and ecological difficulty in order to help them develop skills that will help them become useful community members as adults.

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  3. How Do Hunter-Gatherer Children Learn Subsistence Skills?Lew-Levy, Sheina - Human Nature, 2017 - 4 Hypotheses

    To understand transmission of knowledge and its impact on human evolution history, this study explores the research question: "How do hunter-gatherer children learn subsistence skills?". The authors use meta-ethnography methods on 34 cultures from five continents discussing these topics. The results show that the learning process starts early in infancy when their parents take them to the excursions. In middle childhood, they already acquired gathering skills. Only in the start of adolescence, adults begin teaching how to hunt and to produce complex tools. The learning process continues into adulthood.

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  4. Toys as Teachers: A Cross-Cultural Analysis of Object Use and Enskillment in Hunter–Gatherer SocietiesRiede, Felix - Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory, 2023 - 2 Hypotheses

    The article discusses the role of toys and tools in the development of skills and cultural transmission in hunter-gatherer societies. The authors present a cross-cultural inventory of objects made for and by hunter-gatherer children and adolescents, finding that toys and tools were primarily handled outside of explicit pedagogical contexts, and there is little evidence for formalised apprenticeships. The authors suggest that children's self-directed interactions with objects, especially during play, have a critical role in early-age enskillment. Both boys and girls tend to use objects in work and play that emulate the gendered division of labor in their communities, and many objects made by and for children had full-scale counterparts. Finally, the authors argue that the peer group is crucial to skill acquisition in hunter-gatherer societies.

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