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  1. The Myth of Man the Hunter: Women’s contribution to the hunt across ethnographic contextsAnderson, Abigail - PLoS ONE, 2023 - 3 Hypotheses

    After noticing that recent archaeological research has found evidence that women in pre-history were probably hunters, the authors use the ethnographic record from 63 foraging populations to explore the role of women in hunting. They explore what proportion of societies expect women to contribute to hunting, if women hunt, what proportion was opportunistic or intentional, whether women hunters were skilled, and whether women hunted with children.

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  2. No universals in the cultural evolution of kinship terminologyPassmore, Sam - Evolutionary Human Sciences, 2020 - 3 Hypotheses

    Using phylogenetic comparative methods, the study explores the evolution of kinship terminologies within 176 societies in Austronesian, Bantu, and Uto-Aztecan language families. The authors consider 18 theories in the anthropological record that suggests that change in kinship terminologies is predicted by some social structures: marriage, residence, and descent. Only 19 of the 29 statistical hypotheses are supported, while none of the theories are supported in all three language families. This statistical irregularity means that the results are lineage-specific, instead of showing a universal driver of change in kinship terminology types.

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  3. Quantifying the relationship between food sharing practices and socio-ecological variables in small-scale societies: A cross-cultural multi-methodological approachAhedo, Virginia - PLoS ONE, 2019 - 3 Hypotheses

    This study examined possible relationships between food sharing practices, subsistence strategies, and various environmental settings using 22 small-scale societies across America and Siberia. After performing exploratory analyses between each of the 21 socio-economic variables and the 14 basic sharing practices, which amounted to a total of 294 tests, the researchers found hardly any statistically significant relationships.

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  4. Social Practice and Shared History, Not Social Scale, Structure Cross-Cultural Complexity in Kinship SystemsRácz, Péter - Topics in Cognitive Science, 2019 - 6 Hypotheses

    Researchers examined kinships terminology systems for explanations regarding specifically observed typology of kin terms for cousins cross-culturally. They explore two theories, the first relating to population size via bottleneck evolution, and the second relating to social practices that shape kinship systems. Using the Ethnographic Atlas within D-PLACE, 936 societies with kinship system information were studied. The findings did not suggest a relationship between increased community size and a decrease in kinship complexity, however the research does suggest a relationship between practices of marriage and descent and kinship complexity.

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  5. Systematic description and analysis of food sharing practices among hunter-gatherer societies of the AmericasCaro, Jorge - Hunter Gatherer Research, 2019 - 4 Hypotheses

    This paper seeks to identify how different practices of food sharing are related to one another, and the degree to which societies in North and South America may share practices with one another. The authors attempt this by using ethnographic literature to break sharing activities down into their constituent, multi-stage parts, and then comparing the prevalence of these parts and their relationships to one another. The study finds that the presence or absence of a distributor in a sharing activity, and who that distributor is, has a significant effect on how sharing is carried out. On the other hand, linguistic relationships between groups seem to have little impact on their sharing practices, and geographic proximity between groups only seems to have a significant effect on sharing practices in North America.

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  6. Drivers of global variation in land ownershipKavanagh, Patrick H. - Ecography, 2021 - 1 Hypotheses

    The article discusses the role of land ownership in natural resource management and social-ecological resilience, and explores the factors that determine ownership norms in human societies. The study tests long-standing theories from ecology, economics, and anthropology regarding the potential drivers of land ownership, including resource defensibility, subsistence strategies, population pressure, political complexity, and cultural transmission mechanisms. Using cultural and environmental data from 102 societies, the study found an increased probability of land ownership in mountainous environments and societies with higher population densities. The study also found support for the idea that neighboring societies might influence land ownership. However, there was less support for variables associated with subsistence strategies and political complexity.

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