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  1. Contemporary parasite stress curvilinearly correaltes with outgorup trust: Cross-country evidence from 2005 to 2014Zhang, Jinguang - Evolution and Human Behavior, 2018 - 2 Hypotheses

    Using a sample of 80 countries and political regions, the present study examines the effect parasite stress has on people's trust towards ingroup and outgroup members. The findings do not offer support of there being a concave relationship between parasite stress and ingroup member trust. The results do indicate that there is a U-correlation between trusting outgroup members and parasite stress.

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  2. On Weber, pathogens and culture: a global empirical analysis of religion and individualismCiftci, Sabri - Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 2022 - 4 Hypotheses

    This study analyzes Weber's religious ethic thesis by investigating the relationship of religiosity on economic, social, and expressive individualism. The author found that religiosity increased economic individualism, and decreased social and expressive individualism. Under the notion that natural disasters prompt collectivistic defensive mechanisms, the author demonstrated some support that low levels of pathogen prevalence strengthened religiosity's relationships with social and expressive individualism, but not for economic individualism. The author did not find support for Weber's idea that Protestation will increase economic individualism and other religions, such as Islam, decrease economic individualism.

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  3. Individual responsibility and economic development: evidence from rainfall dataDavis, Lewis - KYKLOS, 2016 - 2 Hypotheses

    Drawing from risk sharing theory, this paper used data from 89 countries to examine the relationship between historic rainfall variation (before 1900) and the emergence of collectivism in, assumed to be, preindustrial societies. Contemporary values of individualistic responsibilities were used under the assumption that they will reflect preindustrial values. Findings support the hypothesis that countries with greater rainfall variation will have less individualism than countries with less rainfall variation. The author then examined rainfall variation and individual responsibility as a proposed catalyst for economic development. Support was found that as individualism increased, so did the economic development of a country.

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  4. Kinship, Cooperation, and the Evolution of Moral SystemsEnke, Benjamin - The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 2019 - 10 Hypotheses

    In this paper, the author argues that moral systems evolved as a way to enforce cooperation between people outside of kin groups. Because cooperation within kin groups has apparent adaptive advantages, it is argued that these moral systems will be less important for societies with tight kin groups and conversely more important for those with looser kin groups. In order to test this theory, the author creates an original model that incorporates both ethnographic data and data from contemporary countries. Thus, it is postulated that historical kinship practices will influence contemporary systems. The paper concludes that there is sufficient historical evidence for this theory.

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  5. Cooperation and trust across societies during the COVID-19 pandemicRomano, Angelo - Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 2021 - 5 Hypotheses

    Researchers used various hypotheses to determine if cross-country differences in trust and cooperation would predict prosocial COVID-19 responses and policies. Using individual surveys from 34,526 participants from 41 countries, there were no significant associations between trust and cooperation and prosocial behavior, motivation, regulation, or stringency of policies. While the researchers did find significant variation among cross-country individuals, these results were unable to predict country-level prosocial responses.

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  6. Sunlight and cultureFredriksson, Per G. - Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 2021 - 3 Hypotheses

    This article used sub-national, historical and cross-country data to examine if exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UV-R) could be a factor in the formation of individualism and collectivism. The study found support, across all data sets, that increased exposure to UV-R is associated to more collectivism within a culture. The authors theorized that UV-R exposure increases the likelihood of eye disease causing higher rates of blindness. With increased levels of blindness, the more emphasis there will be on close family relations and/or increased uncertainty avoidance from out-groups leading to more collectivism in a culture.

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  7. Understanding cultural persistence and changeGuiliano, Paola - Review of Economic Studies, 2020 - 3 Hypotheses

    Derived from the evolutionary anthropology theory, this study examines the difference of importance placed on traditions and customs between cultures. The authors found that descendants from regions with less climatic stability place less emphasis on tradition and customs than those from more stable environments. The authors suggest that with climatic stability, the traditions and customs which have evolved and benefited the previous generations will be passed on to the next, therefore promoting cultural persistence.

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  8. The transmission of democracy: from the village to the nation-stateGiuliano, Paola - The American Economic Review, 2013 - 3 Hypotheses

    This paper adds to a body of research which analyzes the persistence of institutional features in societies over time by testing for association between local democracy (succession by consensus among preindustrial groups) and various measures of democracy in contemporary societies. The researchers conclude that beliefs and values which perceive democracy as a viable political structure may be an important mediating mechanism in producing and maintaining democratic instututions over time.

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  9. Rice farming, culture and democracyAng, James B. - European Economic Review, 2021 - 4 Hypotheses

    The authors propose that societies with a tradition of rice farming are less likely to develop a democracy than societies with a tradition of wheat farming. They base their predictions on the theory that wheat farming, as opposed to rice farming, does not require extensive community collaboration and promotes individualism, which then in turn promotes democracy. Their findings were robustly consistent with their predictions. The authors used multiple controls in their analyses, including religion, economic development, geography, and local democratic practices.

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  10. The power of religionBentzen, Jeanet Sinding - Journal of Economic Growth, 2022 - 6 Hypotheses

    This paper seeks to understand the extent to which religion has been used to legitimize political power in the past, and the extent to which that carries into contemporary institutions. The authors seek to demonstrate that there is a strong link between the stratification of societies in the past and the presence of autocracies in many of those same areas today. They make their case by putting forward, and testing, three linked theories -- first, that stratified societies are more likely to develop religions based on moralizing high gods as a means of divine legitimization, second, that the societies that used religion for legitimacy in their past are more likely to have religion embedded in their institutions today, and third, that societies that used religion for legitimacy in the past are more likely to be autocracies today.

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