Found 89 Documents across 9 Pages (0.003 seconds)
  1. Intimate partner violence and female property rightsAnderson, Siwan - Nature Human Behavior, 2021 - 2 Hypotheses

    This article studied the effects of common law in Sub-Saharan Africa on property rights of women and its relationship to intimate partner violence. The authors first compared intimate partner violence (IPV) in 593 ethnic groups with a separate marital property regime against groups with a community marital property regime. Then, the authors examined the correlation between women who justify IPV and the presence of a separate marital property regime. They found that separate marital property both increased the likelihood of intimate partner violence and the justification of IPV when compared to a community property regime. The authors use these findings to advocate for marital property rights reform to help reduce partner violence cases.

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  2. The Myth of Man the Hunter: Women’s contribution to the hunt across ethnographic contextsAnderson, Abigail - PLoS ONE, 2023 - 3 Hypotheses

    After noticing that recent archaeological research has found evidence that women in pre-history were probably hunters, the authors use the ethnographic record from 63 foraging populations to explore the role of women in hunting. They explore what proportion of societies expect women to contribute to hunting, if women hunt, what proportion was opportunistic or intentional, whether women hunters were skilled, and whether women hunted with children.

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  3. Was the Duchess of Windsor right?: A cross-cultural review of the socioecology of ideals of female body shapeAnderson, Judith L. - Ethology and Sociobiology, 1992 - 7 Hypotheses

    Cultures vary widely in regards to beauty standards for female body fat: while industrialized nations typically prefer thinness in women, ethnographic reports indicate that plumpness is valued in many small-scale societies. Here the authors evaluate several hypotheses that relate variation in female body fat preference to variation in socioecology such as food storage, climate, male social dominance, valuation and restriction of women's work, and female stress during adolescence.

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  4. Toys as Teachers: A Cross-Cultural Analysis of Object Use and Enskillment in Hunter–Gatherer SocietiesRiede, Felix - Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory, 2023 - 2 Hypotheses

    The article discusses the role of toys and tools in the development of skills and cultural transmission in hunter-gatherer societies. The authors present a cross-cultural inventory of objects made for and by hunter-gatherer children and adolescents, finding that toys and tools were primarily handled outside of explicit pedagogical contexts, and there is little evidence for formalised apprenticeships. The authors suggest that children's self-directed interactions with objects, especially during play, have a critical role in early-age enskillment. Both boys and girls tend to use objects in work and play that emulate the gendered division of labor in their communities, and many objects made by and for children had full-scale counterparts. Finally, the authors argue that the peer group is crucial to skill acquisition in hunter-gatherer societies.

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  5. Residential variation among hunter-gatherersEmber, Carol R. - Behavior Science Research, 1975 - 7 Hypotheses

    This study explores predictors of variation in two dimensions of marital residence patterns among hunter-gatherers: 1) the tendency toward patrilocality versus matrilocality and 2) the tendency toward unilocality versus bilocality.

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  6. Our better nature: Does resource stress predict beyond-household sharingEmber, Carol R. - Evolution and Human Behavior, 2018 - 3 Hypotheses

    The present research investigates food sharing and labor sharing practices of 98 nonindustrial societies. The aims are to: 1) document the frequency and scope of sharing, and 2) test the theory that greater sharing is adaptive in societies subject to more resource stress (including natural hazards).

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  7. Psychometric Properties and Correlates of Precarious Manhood Beliefs in 62 NationsBosson, Jennifer K. - Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 2021 - 4 Hypotheses

    This article is chiefly concerned with the cross-national validity of measures of precarious manhood beliefs (PMB) as well as correlations between those beliefs, other gender ideologies, and measures of development and gender equity. While much of the orientation of this paper is psychological, individual constructions of gender and the ideologies that inform them are culturally specific. Thus, this sort of research allows researchers and theorists an opportunity to glimpse an outline of what might be a deep structure to masculinity cross-culturally. By analyzing data collected through surveys of 34,023 undergraduates in 62 countries, the researchers were able to test for psychometric isomorphism between individuals and country-level data in order to validate their measures. Subsequently, the researchers were able to test correlations between PMB and hostile sexism (HS), benevolent sexism (BS), hostility towards men (HM), and benevolence towards men (BM). This situated the PMB construct within a larger literature on the nature of masculinity. Finally, the researchers tested PMB against the Human Development Index (HDI) and Global Gender Gap Index (GGGI). The researchers conclude that not only is their measure of precarious manhood beliefs valid but that this construct comports well with other theories of gender ideology cross-nationally.

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  8. Explaining the rise of moralizing religions: a test of competing hypotheses using the Seshat DatabankTurchin, Peter - Religion, Brain & Behavior, 2023 - 4 Hypotheses

    How did moralizing religions rise, and what have they caused? The authors test the Big Gods theory, which suggests moralizing religions as a predictor of large-scale complex societies. In addition, they propose their hypothesis, which indicates that warfare, animal husbandry, and agricultural productivity have a role in producing moralizing religions. The results show no significant support for the Big Gods hypothesis. However, they support intergroup warfare, particularly military technologies and cavalry, as an important predictor of social complexity and moralizing religions. In addition, pastoralism has a moderate effect as a predictor for the rise of moralizing religions.

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  9. Disease and diversity in long-term economic developmentBirchenall, Javier A. - World Development, 2023 - 2 Hypotheses

    This article uses the Standard Cross-Cultural Samples to test the relationship between disease and economic growth among sub-Saharan African societies. The authors suggest that a higher disease prevalence limits social integration and economic development since pre-colonial times. The variable measuring economic growth is the complexity of large or impressive structures. The hypotheses are that 1) pathogen stress is negatively correlated to the presence of complex buildings, and 2) pathogen stress is positively correlated to increased ethnic diversity. The results support both hypotheses, and there are additional results, like 1) the negative correlation between pathogen stress and current income per capita and 2) the negative correlation between the increased ethnic diversity and current income per capita. Overall, this article shows the robust relationship between disease and economic development.

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  10. Inculcated traits and game-type combinations: a cross-cultural viewRoberts, John M. - The Humanistic and Mental Health Aspects of Sports, Exercise and Recreation, 1976 - 1 Hypotheses

    This study relates the type of games present in a society to the level of cultural complexity. Authors use a "game-type combination scale" that categorizes societies as having: 1) games of physical skill only; 2) games of physical skill and games of chance; and 3) games of physical skill, games of chance, and games of strategy. Results show a relationship between the game-type combination scale and indicators of cultural complexity.

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