Found 90 Documents across 9 Pages (0.002 seconds)
  1. Sexual dimorphisms and breeding systems in pinnipeds, ungulates, primates, and humansAlexander, Richard D. - Evolutionary Biology and Human Social Behavior: An Anthropological Perspective, 1979 - 1 Hypotheses

    This study examines the relationship between sexual dimorphism and degree of polygyny. Authors test this relationship in both humans and non-human species. In non-human species, every correlation between sexual dimorphism (measured by body length) and degree of polygyny was significant. In human populations, sexual dimporhism was not related to degree of polygyny, however, there were some differences between populations with socially imposed monogomy and those with ecologically imposed monogamy.

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  2. Discriminatory attitudes against unvaccinated people during the pandemicBor, Alexander - Nature, 2023 - 10 Hypotheses

    A study assessed whether individuals express discriminatory attitudes in family and political settings across groups defined by COVID-19 vaccination status across 21 countries. The study found that vaccinated people express discriminatory attitudes towards unvaccinated individuals at a level as high as discriminatory attitudes commonly aimed at immigrant and minority populations. However, there was an absence of evidence that unvaccinated individuals display discriminatory attitudes towards vaccinated people. Discriminatory attitudes towards the unvaccinated were found in all countries except for Hungary and Romania and were more strongly expressed in cultures with stronger cooperative norms. The study suggests that contributors to the public good of epidemic control, such as vaccinated individuals, react negatively towards perceived "free-riders," such as unvaccinated individuals. The study also suggests that discriminatory attitudes, including support for the removal of fundamental rights, emerged despite appeals to moral obligations to increase COVID-19 vaccine uptake.

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  3. Evolution of initiation rites during the Austronesian dispersalBentley, R. Alexander - Science Progress, 2021 - 2 Hypotheses

    This paper builds on previous Austronesian dispersal research that indicated rituals and social complexity gave rise to each other, by examining if marital residence and initiation rites co-evolved during the dispersal. Using a phylogenetic test and initiation data from 79 societies, the authors found evidence that female and male initiation rites co-evolved during the dispersal and were most stable when both initiation rites were present. The authors also suggest that proto-Austronesian society probably lacked initiation rites and such rites only developed later.

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  4. Latitude and intersocietal variation of human sexual dimorphism of statureWolfe, Linda D. - Human Ecology, 1982 - 2 Hypotheses

    This article examines the relationship between sexual dimorphism of stature and latitude; data support the association. The authors also find support for an association between latitude and human marriage systems, a variable proposed by Alexander (1979) to explain variation in sexual dimorphism of stature. When societies are categorized by latitude, the relationships between marriage systems and sexual dimorphism do not reach significance. Overall the authors emphasize the influence of environmental adaptation on sexual dimorphism rather than an explanation solely focused on male-male competition.

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  5. Human marriage systems and sexual dimorphism in statureGaulin, Steven JC - American journal of physical anthropology, 1992 - 2 Hypotheses

    The researchers operationalize new measures of Socially Imposed Monogamy (SIM) and Ecologically Imposed Monogamy (EIM) using scores from Murdock's (1986) Ethnographic Atlas in order to reevaluate Alexander et al.'s (1979) findings that sexual stature dimorphism is higher in SIM (monogamous and highly stratified) and polygynous societies compared to EIM (monogamous and egalitarian) ones. The expected associations between marriage system and sexual dimorphism are not robustly significant; however, an interaction effect is discovered between marriage system and stratification with regard to dimorphism.

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  6. Residential variation among hunter-gatherersEmber, Carol R. - Behavior Science Research, 1975 - 7 Hypotheses

    This study explores predictors of variation in two dimensions of marital residence patterns among hunter-gatherers: 1) the tendency toward patrilocality versus matrilocality and 2) the tendency toward unilocality versus bilocality.

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  7. Markets, religion, community size, and the evolution of fairness and punishmentHenrich, Joseph - Science, 2010 - 2 Hypotheses

    In order to explore the evolution of mutually beneficial transactions in large societies, this experimental study gathered data on the way people in societies of different subsistence types played games simulating interactions with anonymous others. The degree of fairness displayed by different players was correlated with measures of large-scale institutions, such as a market or world religion, that were present in a player’s society. Results suggest that “modern prosociality is not solely the product of an innate psychology, but also reflects norms and institutions that have emerged over the course of human history” (1480).

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  8. More 'altruistic' punishment in larger societiesMarlowe, Frank W. - Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 2008 - 2 Hypotheses

    This article examines the relationship between population size (and complexity) and the level of third-party punishment in economic games. Results demonstrate that people in larger, more complex societies engage in significantly more third-party punishment than people in small-scale societies.

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  9. Costly punishment across human societiesHenrich, Joseph - Science, 2006 - 3 Hypotheses

    This study examines costly punishment behavior across cultures. Authors conducted economic games in a variety of societies and found that costly punishment behavior occurs to varied degrees across cultures. Results also suggest that altruistic behavior is associated with costly punishment behavior.

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  10. Our better nature: Does resource stress predict beyond-household sharingEmber, Carol R. - Evolution and Human Behavior, 2018 - 3 Hypotheses

    The present research investigates food sharing and labor sharing practices of 98 nonindustrial societies. The aims are to: 1) document the frequency and scope of sharing, and 2) test the theory that greater sharing is adaptive in societies subject to more resource stress (including natural hazards).

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