Found 186 Documents across 19 Pages (0.002 seconds)
  1. The plow, female contribution to agricultural subsistence and polygyny: a log linear analysisBurton, Michael L. - Cross-Cultural Research, 1981 - 1 Hypotheses

    This study presents a log linear analysis of the relationship between plow agriculture, female crop tending, and polygyny. The hypothesis was not supported.

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  2. A model of the sexual division of laborBurton, Michael L. - American Ethnologist, 1977 - 1 Hypotheses

    This study presents a model of sexual division of labor using entailment analysis that accounts for distance of the task away from home and danger of the task. Results support the notion that childbirth and nursing are the main constraints on the sexual division of labor and that men tend to be allocated tasks that are more distant and dangerous.

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  3. Sexual division of labor in agricultureBurton, Michael L. - American Anthropologist, 1984 - 7 Hypotheses

    Authors Michael Burton and Douglas White present and test an ecological model for the process of agricultural intensification that aims to explain variance in (and the reduction in) female contribution to agriculture. The model synthesizes and expands upon findings put forth by previous studies in order to create a more comprehensive design. Results suggest that the strongest predictors of female contribution to agriculture are the number of dry months, the importance of domesticated animals to subsistence, and the use of the plow in farming. Crop type, although a weaker predictor, is also supported.

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  4. Longevity Among Hunter-Gatherers: A Cross-Cultural ExaminationGurven, Michael - Population and Development Review, 2007 - 1 Hypotheses

    This article seeks to reevaluate the widespread assumption that hunter-gatherers lack the longevity that people in the modern, industrialized world enjoy. Through modeling life expectancy, mortality, and other demographic trends among extant hunter-gatherer, gatherer-horticulturalists, and horticulturalists societies they are able to challenge this belief. The authors conclude that longevity is a "novel feature of Homo sapiens" and that seven decades seems to be the natural lifespan of a human.

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  5. Process‐based modelling shows how climate and demography shape language diversityGavin, Michael C. - Global Ecology and Biogeography, 2017 - 2 Hypotheses

    Researchers examined both why so many language are spoken today, and why they are so unevenly distributed geographically. Instead of looking at correlative tests, this study uses a process-based simulation model that attempted to predict both the number or precolonial languages in Australia as well as the number of languages per unit of land. The model was based upon three basic assumptions: 1) humans fill unoccupied spaces; 2) rainfall limits population density; 3) groups divide after reaching a maximum population. While researchers used the model strictly on the Australia continent, it was able to correctly explain 56% of spatial variation in language richness, and predict the total number of languages across the continent. The accuracy of this model concludes that climatic conditions and changes in group size are important factors in shaping language diversity patterns and therefore global human cultural diversity.

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  6. Technological organization and settlement mobility: an ethnographic examinationShott, Michael - Journal of Anthropological Research, 1986 - 2 Hypotheses

    This study tests the relationship between mobility and technology among foragers, with the intent of applying findings to the archaeological record. In data analysis, mobility frequency is differentiated from mobility magnitude, and technological diversity is differentiated from technological complexity. Results suggest that mobility frequency is negatively associated with technological diversity while mobility magnitude is negatively associated with technological complexity.

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  7. Population aggregation and the Anasazi social landscape: A view from the four cornersAdler, Michael A. - The Ancient Southwestern Community: Models and Methods for the Study of Prehistoric Social Organization, 1990 - 1 Hypotheses

    Using both archaeological data from the Mesa Verde region and a Human Relations Area Files random sample of 25 worldwide societies, and another 10 from the American Southwest, the author looked to examine the relationship between changes in community size and settlements, agriculture intensification, and rules governing resource access. In particular the researcher wanted to examine the size of the group that controls the primary access to the main resource. After studying this global sample, the author takes an ethnographic look specifically at the Northern Anasazi in southewestern Colorado.

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  8. Ritual Facilities and Social Integration in Nonranked SocietiesAdler, Michael A. - The Architecture of Social Integration in Prehistoric Pueblos, 1989 - 2 Hypotheses

    The author sampled 28 nonhierarchical, sedentary (at least partially), and demographically documented societies to examine the presence, size, and use of socially integrative facilities. Examing the ethnographic record from the Human Relations Area Files, the author looked to test the assumption that kivas were intended for communal ritual activity.

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  9. Communities of Soil and Stone- An Archaeological Investigation of Population AggregationAdler, Michael A. - Chapters 4 & 5, 1990 - 6 Hypotheses

    The dissertation in its entirety is an archaeological investigation of population aggregation among the Mesa Verde region Anasazi A.D. 900-1300. Chapters four and five of Adlers larger work focus on cross-cultural perspectives to inform discussion around resource access and community strength. Multiple different hypotheses were tested with different data sets, but the HRAF database and Standard Cross Cultural Sample were used throughout.

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  10. Periodic catastrophes over human evolutionary history are necessary to explain the forager population paradoxGurven, Michael D. - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 2019 - 5 Hypotheses

    Researchers looked at four different demographic scenarios (altered mean vital rates (i.e., fertility and mortality), vital rate stochasticity, vital rate covariance, and periodic catastrophes) and their possible effects on the rapid population growth of contemporary human foragers and steady population decline of chimpanzees. They evaluated these variables and the various conditions that would favor a more sustainable zero population growth (ZPG) among 10 small-scale subsistence human populations (Agta, Ache, Hadza, Hiwi, Ju/’hoansi, Gainj, Tsimane, Yanomamo, Northern Territory Aborigines, and Herero) and five wild chimpanzee groups (Gombe, Kanyawara, Mahale, Ngogo, and Taï). The results state that the most effective modifications towards ZPG would include a combination of more than one of the four demographic scenarios tested, with the most realistic solution including both vital rate alteration and an increase in catastrophes.

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