Found 82 Documents across 9 Pages (0.002 seconds)
  1. Meat is good to tabooFessler, Daniel M.T. - Journal of Cognition and Culture, 2003 - 1 Hypotheses

    This study finds that meat taboos are more common than non-meat taboos cross-culturally. Several explanations for meat taboos are discussed. Authors advocate an evolutionary understanding of food taboos.

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  2. Reproductive immunosuppression and diet: an evolutionary perspective on pregnancy sickness and meat consumptionFessler, Daniel M.T. - Current Anthropology, 2002 - 1 Hypotheses

    This article examines meat avoidance during pregnancy as an evolutionary adaptation. Data suggests that during pregnancy, meat avoidance is significantly more common cross-culturally than other types of food avoidance. The timing of meat avoidance, the presence of meat-borne pathogens, and sensory and ingestive changes in early pregnancy are also discussed.

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  3. Cross-Cultural Invariances in the Architecture of ShameSznycer, Daniel - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 2018 - 4 Hypotheses

    This study looks at the possibility of a universal system of social valuation by examining the correlation between shame and devaluation. Researchers conducted an experiment among 899 participants from 15 communities of high cultural variation in order to test if similar relationships between shame and devaluation exist independently of cultural contact or cultural evolution. The findings reveal that shame and devaluation are closely linked both between individuals and members of a local audience, as well as cross-culturally.

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  4. Invariances in the architecture of pride across small-scale societiesSznycer, Daniel - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2018 - 2 Hypotheses

    Using experimental methods, these researchers evaluated the function of pride in ten small-scale societies by testing personal pride’s association with valuation by the surrounding community. Their aim was to see if findings from western(-ized), educated, industrialized, rich, and democratic (WEIRD) societies replicate in non-WEIRD societies. Simple linear regression in each society indicates that the amount of pride one feels for a given action closely matches how highly others in the same community value the action. Authors conclude support for the universality of the pride system.

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  5. Relationships between subsistence and age at weaning in "preindustrial" societiesSellen, Daniel W. - Human Nature, 2001 - 3 Hypotheses

    This study tests the weaning food availability hypothesis, that both the introduction of foods other than breastmilk and the cessation of breastfeeding will vary by society's subsistence type. This hypothesis has implications for demography, as accelerated weaning can lead to increases in both mothers' fertility (due to decreased birth intervals) and infant mortality (due to the presence of pathogens in new foods).

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  6. Fertility and mode of subsistence: a phylogenetic analysisSellen, Daniel W. - Current Anthropology, 1997 - 1 Hypotheses

    This study tests for a relationship between subsistence type and fertility using phylogenetic and statistical analyses. The authors find a clear relationship between dependence on agriculture and fertility among non-permanently settled groups.

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  7. Exploring the thrifty genotype's food-shortage assumptions: a cross-cultural comparison of ethnographic accounts of food security among foraging and agricultural societiesBenyshek, Daniel C. - American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 2006 - 3 Hypotheses

    This article tests the assumption that foragers are more likely to experience regular and severe food shortages than sedentary agriculturalists. The results indicate that there is no statistical difference in the quantity of available food or the frequency or extent of food shortages between preindustrial foragers, recent foragers, and agriculturalists.

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  8. Extracted-Food Resource-Defense Polygyny in Native Western North American Societies at ContactSellen, Daniel W. - Current Anthropology, 2004 - 3 Hypotheses

    In this article, the authors seek to understand the connection between male resource-holding potential and male mating success. This connection has been suggested by behavioral ecologists as a way of explaining differing rates of polygyny across cultures. The authors investigate this relationship by testing the relationship between rates of polygyny and male control of local subsistence sites among North American societies during the period of contact. They find a positive relationship between these two variables for both terrestrial and aquatic game, but not for gathered plants. This suggests support for the theory.

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  9. Not just dead meat: an evolutionary account of corpse treatment in mortuary ritualsWhite, Claire - Journal of Cognition and Culture, 2015 - 1 Hypotheses

    Authors suggest that in a majority of studied societies, kin of the deceased tend to engage ritually in risky prolonged and intimate preparation behaviors with corpses. This occurs namely in visual exposure and tactile interaction. Authors hypothesize that this extended contact not only allows true confirmation of death (through exposure to many cues), but also facilitates acceleration of a grieving process that returns the bereaved to a normal state of social functioning.

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  10. The dead may kill you: Do ancestor spirit beliefs promote cooperation in traditional small-scale societiesWhite, Claire - The Journal of Cognition and Culture, 1 - 3 Hypotheses

    Using 57 cultures from the Human Relations Area Files database, this paper examines the function and effectiveness of the belief of punitive ancestors in small-scale societies. The authors found that belief in dangerous ancestral entities is widespread and common and that harm is preventable through ritualized mortuary practices. The authors concluded that the fear of ancestral spirits did not promote social cooperation or inhibit self-interest behavior, contrary to the supernatural punishment hypothesis.

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