Found 110 Documents across 11 Pages (0.003 seconds)
  1. A Cross-Cultural Analysis of Hunter-Gatherer Social LearningGarfield, Zachary H. - Social Learning and Innovation in Contemporary Hunter-Gatherers, 2016 - 10 Hypotheses

    Social scientists are equivocal as to the importance of teaching (as contrasted with other forms of learning) in traditional societies. While many cultural anthropologists have downplayed the importance of teaching, cognitive psychologists often argue that teaching is a salient human universal. Here the authors investigate cultural transmission among 23 hunter-gatherer populations to explore the relative importance of teaching among foragers.

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  2. Evolutionary Models of LeadershipGarfield, Zachary H. - Human Nature, 2019 - 4 Hypotheses

    Researchers tested four models of leadership for qualities and correlates that could predict the transmission of leadership cross-culturally. Researchers sampled 60 societies from the Probability Sample Files, coding for 24 variables. Support was found for the prevalence of the collective action model and the prestige model, with a lack of support found for the dominance leadership model.

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  3. Universal and variable leadership dimensions across human societiesGarfield, Zachary H. - Evolution and Human Behavior, 2020 - 6 Hypotheses

    This study seeks to better understand different forms of leadership across non-WEIRD (Western, Educated, Industrialized, Rich, and Democratic) societies, and tests evolutionary theories regarding the qualities of leaders, their functions, and the costs and benefits they incur and provide as a part of their leadership. The authors assess the various aspects of leaders and leadership by coding 109 dimensions of leadership as represented in eHRAF World Cultures, using the Probability Sample Files, comprised on 60 cultures. By assessing the prevalence of each of these dimensions in the various cultures under consideration, the authors were able to ascertain some largely universal characteristics of leaders: that they 1) were judged intelligent and knowledgeable; 2) resolved conflicts; and 3) received material and social benefits. They also found that other dimensions varied by considerably group context (e.g., kin group leaders tended to be older), subsistence strategy (e.g., hunter-gatherer leaders tend to lack coercive authority), and gender (e.g., female leaders are more associated with family contexts). Further analyses showed that followers and leaders both benefited from leadership, and that shamans constitute a new brand of leader that both utilizes prestige and dominance in order to effectively rule.

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  4. The content and structure of reputation domains across human societies: a view from the evolutionary social sciencesGarfield, Zachary H. - Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 2021 - 3 Hypotheses

    Reputations are an important aspect of human social interactions and cooperation, but much of the research on reputations has focused on a narrow range of domains such as prosociality and aggressiveness. This study aims to provide an empirical view of reputation domains across different cultures by analyzing ethnographic texts on reputations from 153 cultures. The findings suggest that reputational domains vary across cultures, with reputations for cultural conformity, prosociality, social status, and neural capital being widespread. Reputation domains are more variable for males than females, and certain reputation domains are interrelated. The study highlights the need for future research on the evolution of cooperation and human sociality to consider a wider range of reputation domains and their variability across different social and ecological contexts and genders.

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  5. Norm violations and punishments across human societiesGarfield, Zachary H. - Evolutionary Human Sciences, 2023 - 4 Hypotheses

    This study uses Bayesian phylogenetic regression modelling across 131 largely non-industrial societies to test how variation of punishment is impacted by social, economic, and political organization. The authors focus on the presence of norm violations and types of punishments, and explores their relationships. The norm violations include adultery, rape, religious violations, food violations, and war cowardice. While the types of punishment are reputational, material, physical, or education. This study suggests a hypothesis for each type of punishment in relation to socioecological variables.

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  6. Household structure and socialization practicesMunroe, Ruth H. - Journal of Social Psychology, 1980 - 1 Hypotheses

    An earlier study (Minturn & Lambert 1964) found a nonsignificant association between multifamily households and social permisiveness. This article re-tests that association using Barry et al.'s ratings for child socialization practices, finding that having several families in one house tends to decrease socialization pressure on children.

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  7. A cross-cultural studyBlum, Richard H. - Society and Drugs, 1969 - 33 Hypotheses

    This chapter offers an exploratory study that examines the relationships between several culture characterstics, including child socialization practices, social structure, and food production, and mind-altering drug use in non-literate societies. All hypotheses were supported.

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  8. Basic economy and communityGoodenough, Ward H. - Behavior Science Notes, 1969 - 4 Hypotheses

    This paper examines relationships among mode of production, sedentarism, and population size. Generally, agricultural societies were found to be sedentary and have larger populations, while migratory societies (such as herders or hunters) had smaller population size.

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  9. Administrative rationality, social setting, and organizational developmentUdy, Stanley H., Jr. - American Journal of Sociology, 1962 - 4 Hypotheses

    This study examines organizational characteristics associated with administrative rationality, as well as how organizational development differs under varying social or cultural conditions.

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  10. Cultural differences in the perception of geometric illusionsSegall, Marshall H. - Science, 1963 - 1 Hypotheses

    "Data from 15 societies are presented in an effort to show substantial intersocietal differences of two types in susceptibility to geometric optical illusions. The results suggest the existence of different habits of perceptual inference which relate to cultural and ecological factors in the visual environment."

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