Found 126 Documents across 13 Pages (0.031 seconds)
  1. Cultural macroevolution mattersGray, Russell D. - PNAS, 2017 - 3 Hypotheses

    Researchers sampled 106 Austronesian societies from the Pulotu database to study the way political complexity evolves in relation to religious beliefs and practices. Specifically, they attempt to test the causal theory that supernatural punishment played a causal role in the emergence of large, complex societies. They use phylogenetic models to control for Galton's Problem in testing the supernatural punishment hypothesis in an effort to demonstrate the effectiveness of utilizing cross-cultural datasets in evaluating evolutionary change in human social organization.

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  2. An additional warfare element in territorial expansionRussell, Elbert W. - Behavior Science Notes, 1973 - 1 Hypotheses

    This study re-examines Otterbein's (1970) data on territorial expansion and military sophistication. The author finds that a society's level of "ferocity (or tendency to attack) is more highly correlated with territorial expansion than military sophistication.

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  3. Conflict Changes How People View GodCaluori, Nava - Psychological Science, 2020 - 2 Hypotheses

    The researchers conducted four studies using multiple methods. All of the studies examined the ways in which conflict may shape religion, and, more specifically whether conflict relates to an increased belief in a punitive god. Study 2 compared individuals from four countries; study 4 used worldwide data. We don't report results from the American sample (study 1) or from study 3. As a result of all four studies, the researchers suggest that since beliefs in punitive gods are better able to preserve order and enforce traditions, they may be particularly attractive during times of conflict.

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  4. Coevolution of religious and political authority in Austronesian societiesSheehan, Oliver - Nature Human Behaviour, 2023 - 2 Hypotheses

    Using data from 97 Austronesian-speaking societies, this paper asks two research questions: 1) have religious and political authority co-evolved and 2) have the two institutions tended to become differentiated or unified? By applying phylogenetic methods, the findings show that in Austronesian societies, religious and political authorities are mutually interdependent; however, there is insufficient evidence to support any differentiation or unification of the two over time.

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  5. Process‐based modelling shows how climate and demography shape language diversityGavin, Michael C. - Global Ecology and Biogeography, 2017 - 2 Hypotheses

    Researchers examined both why so many language are spoken today, and why they are so unevenly distributed geographically. Instead of looking at correlative tests, this study uses a process-based simulation model that attempted to predict both the number or precolonial languages in Australia as well as the number of languages per unit of land. The model was based upon three basic assumptions: 1) humans fill unoccupied spaces; 2) rainfall limits population density; 3) groups divide after reaching a maximum population. While researchers used the model strictly on the Australia continent, it was able to correctly explain 56% of spatial variation in language richness, and predict the total number of languages across the continent. The accuracy of this model concludes that climatic conditions and changes in group size are important factors in shaping language diversity patterns and therefore global human cultural diversity.

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  6. Institutionalized male transvestism, the couvade, and homosexual behaviorGray, J. Patrick - Ethos, 1984 - 2 Hypotheses

    This study employs a psychological theory and builds on the holocultural literature on male homosexuality. Two hypotheses relating homosexual behavior among men to social constructs for sexuality (the couvade, male transvestism) are derived from a study by Munroe (1980). The hypotheses are tested and supported in a sample of cultures drawn from Munroe's codes and the Human Relations Area Files.

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  7. Parental certainty, subsistence and inheritance revisitedGray, J. Patrick - Journal of Human Evolution, 1981 - 2 Hypotheses

    This article examines the results of a study (Gaulin 1980) on male parental certainty and subsistence type. Methodological errors are assessed and the hypotheses are retested.

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  8. Correlates of monogamy in human groups: tests of some sociobiological hypothesesGray, J. Patrick - Behavior Science Research, 1984 - 7 Hypotheses

    This study re-examines the hypotheses offered by Kleiman (1977) linking monogamy in humans to monogamy in other animals. Of seven hypotheses, only two were weakly supported when using a cross-cultural analysis.

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  9. Male security and art style in traditional societiesGray, J. Patrick - The Journal of Social Psychology, 1981 - 6 Hypotheses

    This paper suggests that Fischer's (1961) "male security" variable is not adequate. Cross-cultural analyses suggest that male security in the realm of father-son interaction may be more important than male security in the realm of heterosexual interaction in explaining the line shape preference of a society.

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  10. The influence of female power in marriage on sexual behaviors and attitudes: a holocultural studyGray, J. Patrick - Archives of Sexual Behavior, 1984 - 2 Hypotheses

    This article re-examines Abernethy's (1974) hypothesis that female power within a marriage negatively affects male sexual functioning. Results do not support this hypothesis.

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