Found 106 Documents across 11 Pages (0.002 seconds)
  1. Cultural macroevolution mattersGray, Russell D. - PNAS, 2017 - 3 Hypotheses

    Researchers sampled 106 Austronesian societies from the Pulotu database to study the way political complexity evolves in relation to religious beliefs and practices. Specifically, they attempt to test the causal theory that supernatural punishment played a causal role in the emergence of large, complex societies. They use phylogenetic models to control for Galton's Problem in testing the supernatural punishment hypothesis in an effort to demonstrate the effectiveness of utilizing cross-cultural datasets in evaluating evolutionary change in human social organization.

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  2. An additional warfare element in territorial expansionRussell, Elbert W. - Behavior Science Notes, 1973 - 1 Hypotheses

    This study re-examines Otterbein's (1970) data on territorial expansion and military sophistication. The author finds that a society's level of "ferocity (or tendency to attack) is more highly correlated with territorial expansion than military sophistication.

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  3. Conflict Changes How People View GodCaluori, Nava - Psychological Science, 2020 - 2 Hypotheses

    The researchers conducted four studies using multiple methods. All of the studies examined the ways in which conflict may shape religion, and, more specifically whether conflict relates to an increased belief in a punitive god. Study 2 compared individuals from four countries; study 4 used worldwide data. We don't report results from the American sample (study 1) or from study 3. As a result of all four studies, the researchers suggest that since beliefs in punitive gods are better able to preserve order and enforce traditions, they may be particularly attractive during times of conflict.

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  4. Process‐based modelling shows how climate and demography shape language diversityGavin, Michael C. - Global Ecology and Biogeography, 2017 - 2 Hypotheses

    Researchers examined both why so many language are spoken today, and why they are so unevenly distributed geographically. Instead of looking at correlative tests, this study uses a process-based simulation model that attempted to predict both the number or precolonial languages in Australia as well as the number of languages per unit of land. The model was based upon three basic assumptions: 1) humans fill unoccupied spaces; 2) rainfall limits population density; 3) groups divide after reaching a maximum population. While researchers used the model strictly on the Australia continent, it was able to correctly explain 56% of spatial variation in language richness, and predict the total number of languages across the continent. The accuracy of this model concludes that climatic conditions and changes in group size are important factors in shaping language diversity patterns and therefore global human cultural diversity.

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  5. Residential variation among hunter-gatherersEmber, Carol R. - Behavior Science Research, 1975 - 7 Hypotheses

    This study explores predictors of variation in two dimensions of marital residence patterns among hunter-gatherers: 1) the tendency toward patrilocality versus matrilocality and 2) the tendency toward unilocality versus bilocality.

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  6. Broad supernatural punishment but not moralizing high gods precede the evolution of political complexity in AustronesiaWatts, Joseph - Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 2015 - 4 Hypotheses

    The authors investigate whether moralizing high gods and, more generally, supernatural punishment precede, sustain, or follow political complexity. The cultural traits at hand are mapped onto phylogenetic trees representing the descent and relatedness of 96 Austronesian cultures.

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  7. Institutionalized male transvestism, the couvade, and homosexual behaviorGray, J. Patrick - Ethos, 1984 - 2 Hypotheses

    This study employs a psychological theory and builds on the holocultural literature on male homosexuality. Two hypotheses relating homosexual behavior among men to social constructs for sexuality (the couvade, male transvestism) are derived from a study by Munroe (1980). The hypotheses are tested and supported in a sample of cultures drawn from Munroe's codes and the Human Relations Area Files.

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  8. Parental certainty, subsistence and inheritance revisitedGray, J. Patrick - Journal of Human Evolution, 1981 - 2 Hypotheses

    This article examines the results of a study (Gaulin 1980) on male parental certainty and subsistence type. Methodological errors are assessed and the hypotheses are retested.

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  9. Correlates of monogamy in human groups: tests of some sociobiological hypothesesGray, J. Patrick - Behavior Science Research, 1984 - 7 Hypotheses

    This study re-examines the hypotheses offered by Kleiman (1977) linking monogamy in humans to monogamy in other animals. Of seven hypotheses, only two were weakly supported when using a cross-cultural analysis.

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  10. Male security and art style in traditional societiesGray, J. Patrick - The Journal of Social Psychology, 1981 - 6 Hypotheses

    This paper suggests that Fischer's (1961) "male security" variable is not adequate. Cross-cultural analyses suggest that male security in the realm of father-son interaction may be more important than male security in the realm of heterosexual interaction in explaining the line shape preference of a society.

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