Found 103 Documents across 11 Pages (0.002 seconds)
  1. Emotion semantics show both cultural variation and universal structureJackson, Joshua Conrad - Science, 2019 - 3 Hypotheses

    Researchers looked at the meaning of various emotion concepts, 'emotion semantics' in an attempt to determine the patterns and processes behind meaning cross-culturally. They used maps of colexification patterns (where semantically related concepts are named with the same word), adjusted Rand indices (ARIs) which indicated the similarities of two community's network structures, and various psychophysiological dimensions to test relationships and patterns of variability /structure in emotion semantics. These methods shed light on the underlying mechanisms behind emotions, both their words and their meanings in languages across the world. Their findings show substantial difference in language families and relationships between geographic proximity of language families and subsequent variation in emotion colexification tied to an evolutionary relationship, while also finding cultural universals in emotion colexification networks with languages primarily differentiating emotions on the basis of valence and activation.

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  2. A global analysis of cultural tightness in non-industrial societiesJackson, Joshua Conrad - Proceedings of the Royal Society, 2020 - 12 Hypotheses

    This article builds on previous cross-country and cross-state research into Tightness-Looseness (TL) theory, which proposes relationships between the incidence of ecological threat and cultural tightness, as well as tightness’ downstream effects on belief in a moralizing high god, inter-group contact and authoritarian leadership. To evaluate the generalizability of TL theory beyond complex cultures, the authors test these relationships among 86 nonindustrial societies from the ethnographic record. A structural equation model is presented of the results for nonindustrial societies; it is generally in accord with previous findings from more complex societies. Because the nonindustrial sample is more variable, they also look at relationships between societal complexity and kinship heterogeneity, aspects that vary in nonindustrial societies.

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  3. Supernatural explanations across 114 societies are more common for natural than social phenomenaJackson, Joshua Conrad - Nature Human Behavior, 2023 - 3 Hypotheses

    The article examines whether cultural groups tend to use supernatural beliefs more to explain natural phenomena or social phenomena. Analysis of ethnographic text from 114 diverse societies reveals that supernatural explanations are more common for natural phenomena, consistent with the theory that humans tend to perceive intent and agency in the natural world. However, supernatural explanations of social phenomena were more prevalent in urbanized societies with greater social complexity and anonymity. The study highlights how people use supernatural beliefs to explain their world and how this varies across small-scale and urbanized communities.

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  4. The dependency-conflict hypothesis and the frequency of drunkennessBacon, Margaret K. - Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 1974 - 1 Hypotheses

    This study is a reexamination of Bacon's (1965) previous cross-cultural study regarding drinking. The current study supports the dependency-conflict hypothesis that frequency of drunkenness is related to dependency needs in childhood and adulthood.

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  5. Female aggression in cross-cultural perspectiveBurbank, Victoria K. - Cross-Cultural Research, 1987 - 1 Hypotheses

    Female aggression, reasons and targets of that aggression are described using a cross-cultural sample. It is suggested that female aggression is often a means of competing for men or subsistence products, but it also may be a means of defense.

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  6. A cross-cultural study of correlates of crimeBacon, Margaret K. - Journal of Abnormal and social Psychology, 1963 - 8 Hypotheses

    Causal factors to the development of crime are examined. Frequency of theft and personal crime are tested against these causal factors in a search for correlations.

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  7. Subsistence variables: a comparison of textor and sauerBrown, Judith K. - Ethnology, 1970 - 3 Hypotheses

    Textor's (1967) A Cross-Cultural Summary is used to test a variety of Sauer's (1952) hypotheses concerning the sequence of agricultural developments. Tests are primarily focused on subsistence variables.

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  8. Being in charge: older women and their younger female kinBrown, Judith K. - Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology, 1994 - 4 Hypotheses

    A study of the relationship between older women and their young female kin. Relationships between women's relationships with their mother-in-laws and subsistence contribution, residence, descent, and food preparation are examined. Findings offer significant support for patterns in the relationship between older women and younger female kin.

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  9. A cross-cultural study of drinking: ii. relations to other features of cultureBacon, Margaret K. - Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol, Suppl., 1965 - 12 Hypotheses

    This study explores cultural variables associated with frequency of drunkenness and ceremonial drinking. Particular attention was paid to childhood socialization variables, as well as politcal and social organization. Results show a low correlation between frequency of drunkenness and frequency of ceremonial drinking, and various other variables are associated with each.

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  10. The evolutionary forms of the religious life: a cross-cultural, quantitative analysisSanderson, Stephen K. - American Anthropologist, 2008 - 1 Hypotheses

    This article develops a new measure of religious evolution and uses multivariate statistical techniques to examine correlates of different religious stages. Results suggest that subsistence economy, societal size, and the presence of writing and records are all associated with the evolution toward monotheism.

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