Found 136 Documents across 14 Pages (0.002 seconds)
  1. Social hierarchy and burial treatments: a comparative assessmentKamp, Kathryn A. - Cross-Cultural Research, 1998 - 2 Hypotheses

    This study examines the relationship between existence of status hierarchies and the level of expense on burials. The aim is to assess the archaeological assumption that more expenditure on burials reflects elite statuses in society. Author concludes that competition is a more direct predictor of burial type than status hierarchy. Implications for archaeology are discussed.

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  2. Residential variation among hunter-gatherersEmber, Carol R. - Behavior Science Research, 1975 - 7 Hypotheses

    This study explores predictors of variation in two dimensions of marital residence patterns among hunter-gatherers: 1) the tendency toward patrilocality versus matrilocality and 2) the tendency toward unilocality versus bilocality.

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  3. Our better nature: Does resource stress predict beyond-household sharingEmber, Carol R. - Evolution and Human Behavior, 2018 - 3 Hypotheses

    The present research investigates food sharing and labor sharing practices of 98 nonindustrial societies. The aims are to: 1) document the frequency and scope of sharing, and 2) test the theory that greater sharing is adaptive in societies subject to more resource stress (including natural hazards).

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  4. Entailment theory and method: a cross-cultural analysis of the sexual division of laborWhite, Douglas R. - Behavior Science Research, 1977 - 3 Hypotheses

    This article discusses constraints on role behavior that affect the division of labor, focusing on women’s childcare responsibilities, the nature of production sequences, and occupational specialization. The authors employ entailment analysis to examine 50 activities; results suggest three findings: 1) men are more likely to be assigned tasks that require travel and exposure to danger, 2) men are more likely to perform tasks that are early in the production sequence, and 3) if women perform a task at an early stage of production, they are more likely to perform subsequent tasks.

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  5. Sunlight and cultureFredriksson, Per G. - Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 2021 - 3 Hypotheses

    This article used sub-national, historical and cross-country data to examine if exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UV-R) could be a factor in the formation of individualism and collectivism. The study found support, across all data sets, that increased exposure to UV-R is associated to more collectivism within a culture. The authors theorized that UV-R exposure increases the likelihood of eye disease causing higher rates of blindness. With increased levels of blindness, the more emphasis there will be on close family relations and/or increased uncertainty avoidance from out-groups leading to more collectivism in a culture.

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  6. Resource stress and subsistence diversification across societiesEmber, Carol R. - Nature Sustainability, 2020 - 4 Hypotheses

    Using a cross-cultural sample of 91 societies, this paper draws on ecological theory to test if unpredictable environments will favor subsistence diversification. The general hypothesis is that societies with high climate unpredictability and resource stress would exhibit more subsistence diversity than societies in more stable climates. The authors examined four environmental and resource stress variables while controlling for temperature variance, subsistence activity, and phylogeny. Support was found for 2 of the 4 variables--chronic scarcity and environmental instability. In the discussion they suggest that more commonly observed events (e.g. annual hunger and climate unpredictability) may give people more motivation to change subsistence than rarer events (e.g. natural hazards and famine).

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  7. Pathways to social inequalityHaynie, Hannah J. - Evolutionary Human Sciences, 2021 - 4 Hypotheses

    In this study, the authors examine pathways to social inequality, specifically social class hierarchy, in 408 non-industrial societies. In a path model, they find social class hierarchy to be directly associated with increased population size, intensive agriculture and large animal husbandry, real property inheritance (unigeniture) and hereditary political succession, with an overall R-squared of 0.45. They conclude that a complex web of effects consisting of environmental variables, mediated by resource intensification, wealth transmission variables, and population size all shape social inequality.

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  8. Conjugal power and spousal resources in patriarchal culturesLee, Gary R. - Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 1983 - 2 Hypotheses

    This article reviews theories of marital power and tests for a relationship between wives’ contribution to subsistence and their conjugal power in patriarchal cultures. Results indicate a positive association. The role of cultural complexity is also considered; its relationship with wives’ power is negative and linear while its relationship with wives’ contribution to subsistence is negative and non-linear.

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  9. New cross-cultural perspectives on marriage transactionsHuber, Brad R. - Cross-Cultural Research, 2011 - 3 Hypotheses

    This article refines previous research on marriage transactions and offers descriptions of new types of marriage transactions. First, the authors examine the frequency and distribution of marriage transactions. Second,the authors use a bio-cultural approach to examine how differences in male and female reproductive strategies and the kin selection theory are associated with marriage transactions.

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  10. Evolutionary theory, kinship, and childbirth in cross-cultural perspectiveHuber, Brad R. - Cross-Cultural Research, 2007 - 4 Hypotheses

    Using an evolutionary perspective, this study tests hypotheses relating gender and kinship roles to the amount of direct and indirect care provided during and around childbirth. The roles of paternal certainty, residence rules and descent groups are also examined.

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