Found 84 Documents across 9 Pages (0.002 seconds)
  1. Harsh environments promote alloparental care across human societiesMartin, J.S. - Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 2020 - 2 Hypotheses

    This study utilizes Bayesian statistics to test the associations between harsh environments (specifically those with higher degrees of climate variability and relatively lower average temperature and precipitation) and alloparental care in societies throughout the world. Results support the hypothesis that societies in harsher environments show higher rates of alloparental care and that societies with higher rates of starvation and resource stress exhibit lower rates of alloparental care. The authors explain this theorizing that in the former relative costs are sufficiently outweighed by the benefits of this type of cooperation and in the latter they are not. They conclude that their results support the plasticity of human alloparenting as a response to varying ecology.

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  2. Identity fusion, outgroup relations, and sacrifice: A cross-cultural testPurzycki, Benjamin Grant - Cognition, 2019 - 4 Hypotheses

    Researchers tested the popular identity fusion theory, which states that while maintaining one’s own individual identity, a deep affinity with one’s group can contribute to sacrifice for that group, in conjunction with their own hypotheses, using a behavior economic experiment. The experiment looked at whether after rolling a die to determine which cup a coin was placed into, participants actually followed the rules, or favored themselves (by putting the coin into their own cups at a disproportionate rate). The findings state that while on average, the individual participants did indeed favor themselves, those with higher ingroup fusion were more likely to sacrifice coins to other members of their ‘ingroup.' The experiments were conducted in 8 culturally diverse field sites.

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  3. Male Sexual JealousyDaly, Martin - Ethology and Sociobiology, 1982 - 3 Hypotheses

    The implications of male sexual jealousy, a postulated universal, are explored. A cross-cultural review of homicides and adultery law is used to indicate male sexual jealousy as a leading cause. Statistical models are not presented; conclusions are deduced from a literature review.

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  4. Female of the speciesMartin, M. Kay - , 1975 - 12 Hypotheses

    This book discusses the role of women cross-culturally. The authors use a cross-cultural sample to examine the differences between men and women in contribution to subsistence as well as the social juxtaposition of the sexes in foraging, horticultural, agricultural, pastoral, and industrial societies.

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  5. Cultural patterning of sexual beliefs and behaviorMinturn, Leigh - Ethnology, 1969 - 12 Hypotheses

    This paper is concerned with the variation in sexual behavior in humans. Authors test hypotheses regarding the relationships between sexual behaviors and beliefs concerning sex.

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  6. Childhood experience and adult personality--a cross-cultural study using the concept of ego strengthAllen, Martin G. - Journal of Social Psychology, 1967 - 6 Hypotheses

    This article examines the relationship between childhood experience and adult personality. This aspect of the adult personality is defined as ego strength. The emphasis of this study is mental health, maturity and the effectiveness of adult learning. Psychoanalytic theory predicts curvilinear relationships but most relationships are linear.

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  7. A cross-cultural study of aggression and crimeAllen, Martin G. - Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 1972 - 18 Hypotheses

    The relationships of aggression and crime to variables of childhood experience, adult behavior, and social structure are cross-culturally analyzed.

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  8. Family role differentiation and women's subsistence contributionWhyte, Martin King - American Sociological Review, 1976 - 0 Hypotheses

    This paper reviews Aronoff and Crano's (1975) hypotheses and procedures. Whyte asserts that their arguments regarding the hypothesis that males universally assume the role of task specialist in the subsistence economy, is in fact a straw man and has already been well established.

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  9. The status of women in preindustrial societiesWhyte, Martin King - , 1978 - 23 Hypotheses

    This book is concerned with explaining variation in the status of women. The author, after measuring over 50 aspects of status, first concludes that status is not a unitary concept. Therefore the author looks at 10 different domains of status. Many traditional explanations are not supported; most support is found for the influence of social complexity which generally lowers female status.

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  10. Cross-cultural studies of women and the male bias problemWhyte, Martin King - Behavior science resesarch, 1978 - 2 Hypotheses

    A feminist critique of ethnographic information is tested to determine if the gender of fieldworkers or coders has a significant effect on the reliability of data regarding women's status. Findings indicate that there is no male bias in coding. With regard to male versus female ethnographers, only a few results (no more than chance) found any evidence of possible bias, but they are all in the same direction with female ethnographers more favorable. Author suggests that any bias will be lessened by using more specific coding scales.

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