Found 78 Documents across 8 Pages (0.002 seconds)
  1. Is male androphilia a context-dependent cross-cultural universal?Hames, Raymond - Archives of Sexual Behavior, 2017 - 1 Hypotheses

    The researchers recode Broudeand Greene's (1976) SCCS data in order to distinguish between 'rare and absent' and different types of culturally-mediated same sex behavior, and to expand available data by including documents outside the SCCS. Their procedure suggests that androphilia is present in 57.5 - 83.6% and same-sex behavior present in 91.1% of all societies. They argue that these new data qualify androphilia as a context-dependent human universal, defined by Chapais (2014) as "patterns of behaviors that invariably or consistently arise in specific social circumstances in some cultures or population segments." (Hames et al. 69)

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  2. Pacifying Hunter-GatherersHames, Raymond - Human Nature, 2019 - 1 Hypotheses

    In this article Hames addresses the long-standing disagreements between evolutionary theories regarding human warfare (more specifically between Rousseauian and Hobbesian frameworks). This study posits that while most current and previous research focuses on the discrepancies between the frequency and intensity with which warfare takes place between hunter-gatherer and large-scale societies, the ability for societies to live in peace with their neighbors despite the possibility for warfare, is the most important evolutionary trait. Coexisting peacefully is what distinguishes human socially and politically from chimpanzees whereas warfare itself is a more primitive trait humans share with previous ancestors. Hames concludes that going forward, use of phylogenetic methods to control for common ancestry, and use of archaeological data would lead to new and more comprehensive findings. Although largely a review of principal warfare literature, Hames does present an original statistical finding on adult violence mortality which is reported below.

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  3. A survey of non-classical polyandryStarkweather, Katherine E. - Human Nature, 2012 - 2 Hypotheses

    This article explores determinants of non-classical polyandry, which the authors assert is more common than is usually conveyed. Results indicate that societies with non-classical polyandry tend to be small scale and egalitarian, practice hunting and gathering or horticulture, and have a male-skewed sex ratio. Overall polyandry is thought to add to the reproductive fitness of both men and women.

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  4. Belief in moralizing godsRoes, Frans L. - Evolution and Human Behavior, 2003 - 4 Hypotheses

    This article investigates relationships among society size, war and conflict, preferred habitats, and belief in moralizing gods. The authors discuss morality and collective action in the face of natural disasters and competition for resources, theorizing that beliefs in moralizing gods could facilitate such cooperation.

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  5. Warless societies and the origin of warKelly, Raymond C. - , 2000 - 8 Hypotheses

    This book examines the difference between warless and warlike societies and attempts to determine the point at which a society becomes warlike. The author suggests that differences between warless and warlike societies are mostly organizational and hypothesizes that "unsegmented" societies, or societies that have a weaker sense of group identity and cohesion, will be more likely to be warless than "segmented" societies. Several tests are presented. Results generally support the hypothesis.

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  6. Human grooming in comparative perspective: People in six small‐scale societies groom less but socialize just as much as expected for a typical primateJaeggi, Adrian V. - American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 2017 - 2 Hypotheses

    Grooming of conspecifics is thought to play an important social role among nonhuman primates, but the function and relative importance of such grooming among humans is unknown. Here the authors compare time spent grooming and conversing among six small-scale societies with grooming data from 69 nonhuman primate species. They test the hypothesis that conversation evolved among humans as an alternative way to obtain the social benefits (such as building and maintaining social alliances) of grooming in large groups.

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  7. Human social stratification and hypergyny: toward an understanding of male homosexual preferenceBarthes, Julien - Evolution and Human Behavior, 2013 - 1 Hypotheses

    Researchers sampled 48 societies cross-culturally to study the genetic survival of male homosexual preference, which is argued to be deleterious in nature due to its fertility costs. The researchers test for a sexually antagonistic factor that would produce a pleotropic advantage, such as male homosexual preference increasing the reproduction of sisters. Utilizing theoretical models, researchers assert that the survival of male homosexual preference is a result of the positive association between social stratification and discriminate female hypergyny due to selection for attractiveness in females.

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  8. Male Homosexual Preference: Where, When, Why?Barthes, Julien - PLOS One, 2015 - 4 Hypotheses

    Authors investigate the prevalence of male homosexual preference (MHP) cross-culturally. They employ four models to test the link between level of social stratification and the probability of observing male homosexual preference (MHP). Authors believe that this link supports the hypergyny hypothesis, which proposes that increased social stratification allows for some sort of factor that improves functional female fertility, perhaps through marriage to men of higher social classes. This would thereby allow more access to resources and consequently the ability to support a greater number of more reproductively-successful offspring. Authors do not make a causal link, however; rather, social stratification may be associated with a yet-undetermined pleiotropic factor that is somehow positive despite its cost on functional male fertility.

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  9. Residential variation among hunter-gatherersEmber, Carol R. - Behavior Science Research, 1975 - 7 Hypotheses

    This study explores predictors of variation in two dimensions of marital residence patterns among hunter-gatherers: 1) the tendency toward patrilocality versus matrilocality and 2) the tendency toward unilocality versus bilocality.

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  10. Our better nature: Does resource stress predict beyond-household sharingEmber, Carol R. - Evolution and Human Behavior, 2018 - 3 Hypotheses

    The present research investigates food sharing and labor sharing practices of 98 nonindustrial societies. The aims are to: 1) document the frequency and scope of sharing, and 2) test the theory that greater sharing is adaptive in societies subject to more resource stress (including natural hazards).

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