Found 85 Documents across 9 Pages (0.002 seconds)
  1. The evolutionary significance of incest rulesThornhill, Nancy Wilmsen - Ethnology and Sociobiology, 1990 - 4 Hypotheses

    This article investigates incest rules, proposing that they are instituted by rulers as a way of preventing wealth-concentration among non-ruling families. Three hypotheses are derived and supported with empirical analysis. Two alternative evolutionary hypotheses are discussed and dismissed by the author.

    Related DocumentsCite
  2. A cross-cultural test of Nancy Jay's theory about women, sacrificial blood and religious participationFink, Virginia S. - Journal of International Women's Studies, 2004 - 1 Hypotheses

    This article examines the restriction of women in religious ritual, focusing on cultural traits that favor men's power. Results suggest that patrilineality and male inheritance correlate with the restriction of women’s participation in ritual.

    Related DocumentsCite
  3. Human rape: an evolutionary analysisThornhill, Randy - Ethnology and Sociobiology, 1983 - 1 Hypotheses

    This article presents tests of hypotheses derived from an evolutionary approach to the rape of women. A cross-cultural test of the relationship between polygyny and rape in non-industrial societies is presented. Results suggest that the degree of polygyny is positively associated with the severity of punishment for rape.

    Related DocumentsCite
  4. A parasite‐driven wedge: infectious diseases may explain language and other biodiversityFincher, Corey L. - Oikos, 2008 - 1 Hypotheses

    The authors test the relationship between linguistic diversity and parasite richness, theorizing that anti-pathogen behaviors, such as the favoring of contact with a limited range of similar, nearby populations carrying the same suite of parasites and pathogens, will be selected for due to variability in immunobiological makeup between groups. As a result, cultural and gene pool isolation will be likely to further divide local parasite-host groups, generating language diversity as well as population divergence and new evolutionary forms among the parasites themselves. A significant positive correlation is found, which the authors suggest has important implications for future research regarding cross-cultural transmission and interaction.

    Related DocumentsCite
  5. Residential variation among hunter-gatherersEmber, Carol R. - Behavior Science Research, 1975 - 7 Hypotheses

    This study explores predictors of variation in two dimensions of marital residence patterns among hunter-gatherers: 1) the tendency toward patrilocality versus matrilocality and 2) the tendency toward unilocality versus bilocality.

    Related DocumentsCite
  6. Our better nature: Does resource stress predict beyond-household sharingEmber, Carol R. - Evolution and Human Behavior, 2018 - 3 Hypotheses

    The present research investigates food sharing and labor sharing practices of 98 nonindustrial societies. The aims are to: 1) document the frequency and scope of sharing, and 2) test the theory that greater sharing is adaptive in societies subject to more resource stress (including natural hazards).

    Related DocumentsCite
  7. Inculcated traits and game-type combinations: a cross-cultural viewRoberts, John M. - The Humanistic and Mental Health Aspects of Sports, Exercise and Recreation, 1976 - 1 Hypotheses

    This study relates the type of games present in a society to the level of cultural complexity. Authors use a "game-type combination scale" that categorizes societies as having: 1) games of physical skill only; 2) games of physical skill and games of chance; and 3) games of physical skill, games of chance, and games of strategy. Results show a relationship between the game-type combination scale and indicators of cultural complexity.

    Related DocumentsCite
  8. Modernization as changes in cultural complexity: new cross-cultural measurementsDivale, William Tulio - Cross-Cultural Research, 2001 - 2 Hypotheses

    This article considers the consequences of modernization. Factor analysis is used to identify four stages of modernization: 1) changes in education, government, and trade; 2) changes in health, technology, and transportation; 3) changes in family, religion, and toilet; and 4) changes in behavior. The authors then consider five trends they expect to be associated with modernization and test whether they develop over the course of the four stages. Results indicate that these 5 trends—increased cultural complexity, female status, pacification, suicide, and social stress—are associated with only the first and fourth stages.

    Related DocumentsCite
  9. Altered states of consciousness within a general evolutionary perspective: a holocultural analysisBourguignon, Erika - Cross-Cultural Research, 1977 - 1 Hypotheses

    This article investigates a cultural patterning of altered states of consciousness. The authors use an ordinal variable for a society's trance type; its four levels are 1) trance, 2) trance and possession trance, 3) possession trance, and 4) neither type. Results suggest that trance type is associated with measures of societal complexity and subsistence economy. Regional differences and the effects of diffusion are also examined.

    Related DocumentsCite
  10. Societal complexity or production techniques: another look at udy's data on the structure of work organizationsNorr, James L. - American Journal of Sociology, 1977 - 3 Hypotheses

    This study asserts that the structure of work organizations is affected more by production techniques than societal complexity. Empirical analysis suggests two trends: 1) production techniques that increase the importance of workers will influence rationality in work organizations, and 2) production techniques that increase the importance of workers and societal complexity will affect the bureaucratic elements of work organizations approximately equally. These findings challenge Udy’s (1970) thesis that complex peasant societies face more challenges than less complex societies in transitioning to modern industrial work forms.

    Related DocumentsCite