Found 104 Documents across 11 Pages (0.002 seconds)
  1. A Cross-Cultural Nutrition Survey of 118 Societies, Representing the Major Cultural and Geographic Areas of the WorldWhiting, Marjorie Grant - , 1958 - 22 Hypotheses

    Dietary variation has been implicated in population-level heath outcomes such as adult height and infant health. Here the author investigates these relationships in a sample of 118 nonindustrial societies, providing a comparative and quantitative assessment of nutrition and health cross-culturally.

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  2. Moralistic gods, supernatural punishment and the expansion of human socialityPurzycki, Benjamin Grant - Nature, 2016 - 2 Hypotheses

    Does belief in moralizing and punitive gods promote sociality between coreligionists who are otherwise strangers? A recent dataset of behavioral economic experiment results and demographic and religious data among eight disparate populations allows the researchers to test their hypothesis of a positive association between deity's perceived interest in human morality and favorability of treatment of outsiders who share a religion. Their findings mostly support this hypothesis, which they suggest lends credibility to a theory in which religion encourages cooperation between large groups of people, and is thus a successful product of cultural evolution.

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  3. Material security, life history, and moralistic religions: A cross cultural examinationPurzycki, Benjamin Grant - PLos ONE, 2018 - 5 Hypotheses

    This article is a quantitative analysis of 592 participants from 8 societies. The study examines a number of theories about what predicts moralistic religions, including life history theory. Findings suggest that there is no evident relationship between these life history predictions and the religious beliefs regarding moralism.

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  4. Identity fusion, outgroup relations, and sacrifice: A cross-cultural testPurzycki, Benjamin Grant - Cognition, 2019 - 4 Hypotheses

    Researchers tested the popular identity fusion theory, which states that while maintaining one’s own individual identity, a deep affinity with one’s group can contribute to sacrifice for that group, in conjunction with their own hypotheses, using a behavior economic experiment. The experiment looked at whether after rolling a die to determine which cup a coin was placed into, participants actually followed the rules, or favored themselves (by putting the coin into their own cups at a disproportionate rate). The findings state that while on average, the individual participants did indeed favor themselves, those with higher ingroup fusion were more likely to sacrifice coins to other members of their ‘ingroup.' The experiments were conducted in 8 culturally diverse field sites.

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  5. The moralization bias of gods’ minds: a cross-cultural testPurzycki, Benjamin Grant - Religion, Brain, and Behavior, 2022 - 8 Hypotheses

    In this study, the authors inspect the relationship between religion, morality, and cooperation by examining the extent to which people associate their deities with moral concern. Using data from 2,228 individuals in 15 different field sites, they find that on average, people tend to ascribe at least some moral concern to their deities, and this effect is stable even after controlling for the influence of explicitly moralistic deities that these societies also worship. The authors also find that ratings of moral concern are not necessarily very high, even for deities that are typically considered to be moralistic, and that there is individual-level variation in the degree of moral concern attributed to deities. In addition, there is an individual-level correlation between how morally interested two selected deities are conceived to be and that being male or more educated decreases the likelihood of associating deities with moral concern. These findings challenge the longstanding belief that belief in moralistic deities is unique to certain societies or religions and instead suggest that the association between deities and moral concern is more widespread and variable, and suggest that the moral character of gods may be tied to cooperation within societies.

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  6. Aloofness and intimacy of husbands and wives: a cross-cultural studyWhiting, John W.M. - Ethos, 1975 - 5 Hypotheses

    This study examines husband-wife relationships, specifically rooming and sleeping arrangements, as they relate to variables such as infant care, subsistence, residence, and cultural complexity. Several hypotheses are tested and all are supported.

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  7. Effects of climate on certain cultural practicesWhiting, John W.M. - Explorations in Cultural Anthropology: Essays in Honor of George Peter Murdock, 1964 - 5 Hypotheses

    This study explores ecological reasons that might explain why boys are mostly circumcised in tropical regions, particularly in Africa and the insular Pacific. The author postulates a long causal chain linking: 1) tropical climate to the growing of root and fruit crops; 2) the need to keep babies on mother's milk for as long as possible where the adult diet is lacking in protein; 3) a long post-partum sex taboo as a way to space births; 4) the practice of polygyny (and associated mother-child sleeping) in the face of a long sex taboo; 5) patrilocal residence; and 6) male initiation ceremonies which are believed to result from the combination of mother-child sleeping, the long poast-partum sex taboo and patrilocal residence.

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  8. Mother-infant separation and physical growthGunders, Shulamith - Ethnology, 1968 - 1 Hypotheses

    This study examines the relationship between adult male height and mother-infant separation. Results indicate that males who are separated from their mothers briefly during infancy are taller in adulthood than those who are not.

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  9. Correlates and consequences of stress in infancyLandauer, Thomas K. - Handbook of Cross-Cultural Human Development, 1981 - 3 Hypotheses

    This study is a continuation of previous research on the relationship between stress during infancy and adult height. With a better understanding of the stressors that infants experience and their effects, the authors test whether the relationship between stress and adult height remains significant when accounting for other environmental factors that may influence adult height. Results suggest that the relationship between infant stress and adult height does remain significant. Findings also show a relationship between infant stress and age at menarche.

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  10. Infantile stimulation and adult stature of human malesLandauer, Thomas K. - American Anthropologist, 1964 - 1 Hypotheses

    In previous studies, researchers have observed an increased growth rate in rats that experienced stimulation during infancy. This study examines the relationship between stressful experiences during infancy and adult male stature in humans cross-culturally. Results suggest a strong positive relationship between infant stress and adult male stature.

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