Found 93 Documents across 10 Pages (0.002 seconds)
  1. A Cross-Cultural Nutrition Survey of 118 Societies, Representing the Major Cultural and Geographic Areas of the WorldWhiting, Marjorie Grant - , 1958 - 22 Hypotheses

    Dietary variation has been implicated in population-level heath outcomes such as adult height and infant health. Here the author investigates these relationships in a sample of 118 nonindustrial societies, providing a comparative and quantitative assessment of nutrition and health cross-culturally.

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  2. Moralistic gods, supernatural punishment and the expansion of human socialityPurzycki, Benjamin Grant - Nature, 2016 - 2 Hypotheses

    Does belief in moralizing and punitive gods promote sociality between coreligionists who are otherwise strangers? A recent dataset of behavioral economic experiment results and demographic and religious data among eight disparate populations allows the researchers to test their hypothesis of a positive association between deity's perceived interest in human morality and favorability of treatment of outsiders who share a religion. Their findings mostly support this hypothesis, which they suggest lends credibility to a theory in which religion encourages cooperation between large groups of people, and is thus a successful product of cultural evolution.

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  3. Material security, life history, and moralistic religions: A cross cultural examinationPurzycki, Benjamin Grant - PLos ONE, 2018 - 5 Hypotheses

    This article is a quantitative analysis of 592 participants from 8 societies. The study examines a number of theories about what predicts moralistic religions, including life history theory. Findings suggest that there is no evident relationship between these life history predictions and the religious beliefs regarding moralism.

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  4. Identity fusion, outgroup relations, and sacrifice: A cross-cultural testPurzycki, Benjamin Grant - Cognition, 2019 - 4 Hypotheses

    Researchers tested the popular identity fusion theory, which states that while maintaining one’s own individual identity, a deep affinity with one’s group can contribute to sacrifice for that group, in conjunction with their own hypotheses, using a behavior economic experiment. The experiment looked at whether after rolling a die to determine which cup a coin was placed into, participants actually followed the rules, or favored themselves (by putting the coin into their own cups at a disproportionate rate). The findings state that while on average, the individual participants did indeed favor themselves, those with higher ingroup fusion were more likely to sacrifice coins to other members of their ‘ingroup.' The experiments were conducted in 8 culturally diverse field sites.

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  5. Aloofness and intimacy of husbands and wives: a cross-cultural studyWhiting, John W.M. - Ethos, 1975 - 5 Hypotheses

    This study examines husband-wife relationships, specifically rooming and sleeping arrangements, as they relate to variables such as infant care, subsistence, residence, and cultural complexity. Several hypotheses are tested and all are supported.

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  6. Effects of climate on certain cultural practicesWhiting, John W.M. - Explorations in Cultural Anthropology: Essays in Honor of George Peter Murdock, 1964 - 5 Hypotheses

    This study explores ecological reasons that might explain why boys are mostly circumcised in tropical regions, particularly in Africa and the insular Pacific. The author postulates a long causal chain linking: 1) tropical climate to the growing of root and fruit crops; 2) the need to keep babies on mother's milk for as long as possible where the adult diet is lacking in protein; 3) a long post-partum sex taboo as a way to space births; 4) the practice of polygyny (and associated mother-child sleeping) in the face of a long sex taboo; 5) patrilocal residence; and 6) male initiation ceremonies which are believed to result from the combination of mother-child sleeping, the long poast-partum sex taboo and patrilocal residence.

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  7. Mother-infant separation and physical growthGunders, Shulamith - Ethnology, 1968 - 1 Hypotheses

    This study examines the relationship between adult male height and mother-infant separation. Results indicate that males who are separated from their mothers briefly during infancy are taller in adulthood than those who are not.

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  8. Correlates and consequences of stress in infancyLandauer, Thomas K. - Handbook of Cross-Cultural Human Development, 1981 - 3 Hypotheses

    This study is a continuation of previous research on the relationship between stress during infancy and adult height. With a better understanding of the stressors that infants experience and their effects, the authors test whether the relationship between stress and adult height remains significant when accounting for other environmental factors that may influence adult height. Results suggest that the relationship between infant stress and adult height does remain significant. Findings also show a relationship between infant stress and age at menarche.

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  9. Infantile stimulation and adult stature of human malesLandauer, Thomas K. - American Anthropologist, 1964 - 1 Hypotheses

    In previous studies, researchers have observed an increased growth rate in rats that experienced stimulation during infancy. This study examines the relationship between stressful experiences during infancy and adult male stature in humans cross-culturally. Results suggest a strong positive relationship between infant stress and adult male stature.

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  10. The absent father and cross-sex identityBurton, Roger V. - Studies in Adolescence, 1963 - 2 Hypotheses

    This study advances the status envy hypothesis of sex identification to explain customs such as male initiation ceremonies and the couvade. Theory of sex identification is discussed; resource withholding, exclusive mother-child sleeping, patrilocality, father absence, female status, and initiation are all considered. Hypotheses are supported with empirical tests.

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