Found 75 Documents across 8 Pages (0.002 seconds)
  1. The role of pre-mastication in the evolution of complementary feeding strategies: a bio-cultural analysisZhang, Yuanyuan - , 2007 - 1 Hypotheses

    This thesis uses a cross-cultural sample to examine the relationship between anemia and infant feeding practices. Examples from the ethnography are presented. Findings are largely descriptive on practice, but are largely inconclusive with regard to anemia.

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  2. Contemporary parasite stress curvilinearly correaltes with outgorup trust: Cross-country evidence from 2005 to 2014Zhang, Jinguang - Evolution and Human Behavior, 2018 - 2 Hypotheses

    Using a sample of 80 countries and political regions, the present study examines the effect parasite stress has on people's trust towards ingroup and outgroup members. The findings do not offer support of there being a concave relationship between parasite stress and ingroup member trust. The results do indicate that there is a U-correlation between trusting outgroup members and parasite stress.

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  3. Premastication: the second arm of infant and young child feeding for health and survival?Pelto, Gretel H. - Maternal and Child Nutrition, 2009 - 1 Hypotheses

    This study asserts that premastication (the pre-chewing of food for infant feeding) has existed as a cross cultural human universal stemming from the post natal immaturity of infant development and their need to have nutritional supplements to breast milk before they develop the molars necessary to consume an adult diet. Hypotheses are informally tested by sampling 119 cultures from the eHRAf database and looking for frequency of premastication occurrence. About one-third with information on infant feeding mention pre-mastication.

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  4. A phylogenetic analysis of dispersal norms, descent and subsistence in Sino-TibetansJi, Ting - Evolution and Human Behavior, 2022 - 3 Hypotheses

    In this study, the authors analyze the evolutionary history of female and male marital dispersal norms in Sino-Tibetan ethnic groups. They also test for the coevolution of agriculture, domesticated cattle pastoralism, and unilineal descent with these dispersal norms. Results indicate that early Sino-Tibetans were likely patrilocal, agriculture and unilineal descent coevolved with female dispersal norms, and cattle domestication did not coevolve with dispersal norms in Sino-Tibetan ethnic groups.

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  5. Residential variation among hunter-gatherersEmber, Carol R. - Behavior Science Research, 1975 - 7 Hypotheses

    This study explores predictors of variation in two dimensions of marital residence patterns among hunter-gatherers: 1) the tendency toward patrilocality versus matrilocality and 2) the tendency toward unilocality versus bilocality.

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  6. Our better nature: Does resource stress predict beyond-household sharingEmber, Carol R. - Evolution and Human Behavior, 2018 - 3 Hypotheses

    The present research investigates food sharing and labor sharing practices of 98 nonindustrial societies. The aims are to: 1) document the frequency and scope of sharing, and 2) test the theory that greater sharing is adaptive in societies subject to more resource stress (including natural hazards).

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  7. Inculcated traits and game-type combinations: a cross-cultural viewRoberts, John M. - The Humanistic and Mental Health Aspects of Sports, Exercise and Recreation, 1976 - 1 Hypotheses

    This study relates the type of games present in a society to the level of cultural complexity. Authors use a "game-type combination scale" that categorizes societies as having: 1) games of physical skill only; 2) games of physical skill and games of chance; and 3) games of physical skill, games of chance, and games of strategy. Results show a relationship between the game-type combination scale and indicators of cultural complexity.

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  8. Modernization as changes in cultural complexity: new cross-cultural measurementsDivale, William Tulio - Cross-Cultural Research, 2001 - 2 Hypotheses

    This article considers the consequences of modernization. Factor analysis is used to identify four stages of modernization: 1) changes in education, government, and trade; 2) changes in health, technology, and transportation; 3) changes in family, religion, and toilet; and 4) changes in behavior. The authors then consider five trends they expect to be associated with modernization and test whether they develop over the course of the four stages. Results indicate that these 5 trends—increased cultural complexity, female status, pacification, suicide, and social stress—are associated with only the first and fourth stages.

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  9. Altered states of consciousness within a general evolutionary perspective: a holocultural analysisBourguignon, Erika - Cross-Cultural Research, 1977 - 1 Hypotheses

    This article investigates a cultural patterning of altered states of consciousness. The authors use an ordinal variable for a society's trance type; its four levels are 1) trance, 2) trance and possession trance, 3) possession trance, and 4) neither type. Results suggest that trance type is associated with measures of societal complexity and subsistence economy. Regional differences and the effects of diffusion are also examined.

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  10. Societal complexity or production techniques: another look at udy's data on the structure of work organizationsNorr, James L. - American Journal of Sociology, 1977 - 3 Hypotheses

    This study asserts that the structure of work organizations is affected more by production techniques than societal complexity. Empirical analysis suggests two trends: 1) production techniques that increase the importance of workers will influence rationality in work organizations, and 2) production techniques that increase the importance of workers and societal complexity will affect the bureaucratic elements of work organizations approximately equally. These findings challenge Udy’s (1970) thesis that complex peasant societies face more challenges than less complex societies in transitioning to modern industrial work forms.

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