Found 78 Documents across 8 Pages (0.002 seconds)
  1. The global ecology of differentiation between us and themVan de Vliert, Evert - Nature Human Behavior, 2019 - 3 Hypotheses

    In this article the researcher conducted five different studies on in-group or "we-group" vs out-group or "they-group" discrimination practices. Two previous hypotheses are re-examined, the pathogen stress hypothesis and the rice-wheat hypothesis, in order to explain heightened ingroup-outgroup differentiation, before turning to overarching geographical hypothesis. Each of the five studies look at a different group of societies cross-culturally, ending in an index of intergroup discrimination by individuals across 222 countries in study 5. All five studies conclude that differentiation between us and them varies based on geographical location and more specifically, along latitude.

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  2. Incest and exogamy: a sociobiological reconsiderationvan den Berghe, Pierre L. - Ethnology and Sociobiology, 1980 - 1 Hypotheses

    This article uses alliance theory and kin selection theory to examine the relationship between consanguineous marriage and descent system. The author argues that there is no relationship between the severity of incest taboos and the rules of exogamy or endogamy. A series of testable hypotheses regarding incest, marital, and descent rules are presented.

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  3. Skin color preference, sexual dimorphism and sexual selection: a case of gene culture co-evolution?van den Berghe, Pierre L. - Ethnic and Racial Studies, 1986 - 1 Hypotheses

    This study focuses on cultural preferences for skin pigmentation. Findings indicate a general preference for lighter pigmentation in women. Cultural and biological theories are offered, and the authors suggest the skin-pigmentation preference is an instance of gene-culture coevolution. Areas for further research to explain the relationship of this finding with other features of society are suggested.

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  4. Precolonial institutions and deforestation in AfricaLarcom, Shaun - Land Use Policy, 2016 - 3 Hypotheses

    Controlling on a wide range of factors, this article examines the relationship between precolonial systems of leadership succession and contemporary deforestation rates. In a study of areas within the boundaries of 649 precolonial societies, the article finds that areas where local leaders were appointed by social standing were more likely to have poorer institutions governing forest management. The authors emphasize the importance of local governance over forest management and argue that precolonial institutions of leadership still have a bearing on current systems of forest management.

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  5. Residential variation among hunter-gatherersEmber, Carol R. - Behavior Science Research, 1975 - 7 Hypotheses

    This study explores predictors of variation in two dimensions of marital residence patterns among hunter-gatherers: 1) the tendency toward patrilocality versus matrilocality and 2) the tendency toward unilocality versus bilocality.

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  6. The relationship between cultural tightness-looseness and COVID-19 cases and deaths: a global analysisGelfand, Michele J. - The Lancet Planetary Health, 2021 - 2 Hypotheses

    This article examines the relationship between the tightness-looseness of a culture and the variation of COVID-19 cases and deaths through October 2020. With COVID-19 data retrieved from Our World in Data from 57 countries with tightness-looseness figures, the article found the cultures with high levels of tightness had fewer COVID-19 cases and deaths when compared to countries with high levels of looseness. Results suggest support of the evolutionary game theoretic model proposing that people in tight cultures may cooperate with more urgency when under collective threat than people in loose cultures.

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  7. Cooperation and trust across societies during the COVID-19 pandemicRomano, Angelo - Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 2021 - 5 Hypotheses

    Researchers used various hypotheses to determine if cross-country differences in trust and cooperation would predict prosocial COVID-19 responses and policies. Using individual surveys from 34,526 participants from 41 countries, there were no significant associations between trust and cooperation and prosocial behavior, motivation, regulation, or stringency of policies. While the researchers did find significant variation among cross-country individuals, these results were unable to predict country-level prosocial responses.

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  8. Our better nature: Does resource stress predict beyond-household sharingEmber, Carol R. - Evolution and Human Behavior, 2018 - 3 Hypotheses

    The present research investigates food sharing and labor sharing practices of 98 nonindustrial societies. The aims are to: 1) document the frequency and scope of sharing, and 2) test the theory that greater sharing is adaptive in societies subject to more resource stress (including natural hazards).

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  9. Inculcated traits and game-type combinations: a cross-cultural viewRoberts, John M. - The Humanistic and Mental Health Aspects of Sports, Exercise and Recreation, 1976 - 1 Hypotheses

    This study relates the type of games present in a society to the level of cultural complexity. Authors use a "game-type combination scale" that categorizes societies as having: 1) games of physical skill only; 2) games of physical skill and games of chance; and 3) games of physical skill, games of chance, and games of strategy. Results show a relationship between the game-type combination scale and indicators of cultural complexity.

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  10. Modernization as changes in cultural complexity: new cross-cultural measurementsDivale, William Tulio - Cross-Cultural Research, 2001 - 2 Hypotheses

    This article considers the consequences of modernization. Factor analysis is used to identify four stages of modernization: 1) changes in education, government, and trade; 2) changes in health, technology, and transportation; 3) changes in family, religion, and toilet; and 4) changes in behavior. The authors then consider five trends they expect to be associated with modernization and test whether they develop over the course of the four stages. Results indicate that these 5 trends—increased cultural complexity, female status, pacification, suicide, and social stress—are associated with only the first and fourth stages.

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