Some correlates of beliefs in the malevolence and benevolence of supernatural beings: a cross societal study

Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology Vol/Iss. 58 Published In Pages: 162-169
By Lambert, William W., Triandis, Leigh Minturn, Wolf, Margery


"Societies with beliefs in aggressive supernaturals . . . had fewer nurturant agents, protected the infant less from environmental discomforts, showed him less affection, were more inconsistent in caring for his needs, and took less care of his needs" (168)


Test NameSupportSignificanceCoefficientTail
Comparison of percentagesSupportedabove .10UNKNOWNUNKNOWN

Related Hypotheses

Main AuthorHypothesis
Lambert, William W."Societies with predominantly aggressive deities and with high pain in the treatment of infants have capricious gods; societies with . . . benevolent deities and with low pain in infant treatment lack capricious gods" (167)
Rosenblatt, Paul C."Individuals [in societies where there is] inadequate satisfaction of early oral . . . needs are more concerned with affection as adults than are those who have been adequately satisfied" (336)
Textor, Robert B. Societies displaying high rates of affection towards infants will have medium or high rates of gender separation during adolescence (368, 317).
Prescott, James W."Human societies which provide their infants and children with a great deal of physical affection (touching, holding, carrying) would be less physically violent than societies which give very little physical affection to their infants and children" (11-12)
Stewart, Robert A. C.Findings: A factor analysis of key dimensions to describe a given culture yielded 12 factors. Factor 9, "child affection and indulgence", loaded highly and positively on high indulgence of infant and child; high display of affection to infant; high degree of drive reduction and satisfaction immediacy. Factor 9 loaded negatively on high inferred conflict regarding responsible, obedient, and self-reliant behavior for child; high degree of pain inflicted on infant by nurturant agent (61-62)