Military deterrence in history: a pilot cross-historical survey

State University of New York Press Albany Published In Pages: ??
By Naroll, Raoul, Bullough, Vern L. , Naroll, Frada


"Territorial gain proved unrelated to one-sided benefits [subsidy, women or honors conferred by one state on its rival] or trade. However . . . there may be a relationship between cultural exchange and territorial gain" (339-340)


Test NameSupportSignificanceCoefficientTail
Point-biserial correlationNot Supportedabove .10not supportedOne-tailed

Related Hypotheses

Main AuthorHypothesis
Naroll, Raoul"We found trade to be more frequent in more peaceful decades than in less peaceful ones. So too we found the exchanges of culturally influential elites such as visiting teachers, students, missionaries, royal brides, entertainers, or hostages to be more frequent in the peaceful decades"
Pryor, Frederic L.Cultural diffusion influences the market exchange of goods by affecting external trade (148).
Naroll, RaoulThere are some indications that military preparation promotes territorial gain. Defensive stance correlated negatively with territorial gain, while quality of armed forces correlated positively. However, territorial gain showed no relation to border fortifications, and none to strength, mobility or prestige of armed forces (337)
Naroll, RaoulGeographical factors do not promote territorial gain, considering strategy (the winning of entire wars) rather than tactics (the winning of a particular battle) (338)
Naroll, RaoulAn intercorrelation of the independent variables revealed the following "communication cluster". Civil war was correlated significantly with intense diplomacy; and capital city located near the frontier was correlated significantly with the following variables: absence of natural barriers, trade, and cultural exchange (341, 342)