A cross-cultural study

Society and Drugs Vol/Iss. 1 Jossey-Bass San Francisco Published In Pages: 135-186
By Blum, Richard H.


"When pain inflicted on the infant by the nurturant agent is high, then: [tobacco use is by both sexes]" (162)


Test NameSupportSignificanceCoefficientTail
Chi squareSupportedp<.10UNKNOWNTwo-tailed

Related Hypotheses

Main AuthorHypothesis
Hines, Dwight"Of . . . child rearing practices in infancy references to odors [in folktales] correlates negatively with absence of pain inflicted by the nurturant agent" (4)
Stewart, Robert A. C.Findings: A factor analysis of key dimensions to describe a given culture yielded 12 factors. Factor 9, "child affection and indulgence", loaded highly and positively on high indulgence of infant and child; high display of affection to infant; high degree of drive reduction and satisfaction immediacy. Factor 9 loaded negatively on high inferred conflict regarding responsible, obedient, and self-reliant behavior for child; high degree of pain inflicted on infant by nurturant agent (61-62)
Zern, David"[In] societies where there was low constancy of presence of the nurturant agent, there was no separate name for the mother. . . . [Societies] where there was high constancy of presence of the nurturant agent . . . had a separate name for the mother" (112)
Lambert, William W."A clear relationship between absence of pain from nurturing agent in infancy and [belief of predominant benevolence of] . . . supernaturals is shown" (164)
Textor, Robert B.In societies where a nurturing agent inflicts pain on an infant, polygynous marriage will be common or occasional (250, 324).