Environmental constraints on infant care practices

Handbook of Cross-Cultural Human Development Garland STPM Press New York & London Published In Pages: 155-179
By Whiting, John W.M.


In colder climates, infants will more likely be carried in cradles. In warmer climates, infants will more likely be carried in slings (164).


Test NameSupportSignificanceCoefficientTail


Variable NameVariable Type OCM Term(s)
Infant Carrying PracticesDependentInfant Care

Related Hypotheses

Main AuthorHypothesis
Ayres, Barbara"The percentage of a society's songs in regular rhythm will be positively related to the frequency with which infants are carried by their mothers or mother surrogates" (395).
Whiting, John W.M.Borrowing in infant carrying practices will be seen within cool and cold climates and within warm and hot climates, but not between these regions (164).
Munroe, Robert L."Societies in which mothers are highly salient to their infants as a consequence of being carried in close contact should also perform male circumcision rites or practice the couvade or both as a method of resolving or expressing sex-identity conflict" (626).
Whiting, John W.M.Circumcision occurs frequently in tropical climates. Author shows exclusive mother-infant sleeping arrangements occur in warm climates, while previous studies report a strong association between exclusive mother-infant sleeping arrangements and male circumcision (515)
Nerlove, Sara"Women who begin supplementary feeding of their infants before the age of one month participate to a greater degree in the subsistence activities of agriculture, hunting, fishing and animal husbandry than do women who begin supplementary feeding of their infants after one month" (210)