Universals and cultural variation in turn-taking in conversation
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences • Vol/Iss. 106(26) • National Academy of Sciences • Washington, D.C • Published In • Pages: 10587-10592 •
By Stivers, Tanya, Enfield, Nicholas J., Brown, Penelope, Englert, Christina, Hayashi, Makoto, Heinemann, Trine, Hoymann, Gertie, Rossano, Federico, De Ruiter, Jan Peter, Yoon, Kyung-Eun, Levinson, Stephen C.
The same suite of variables will account for a significant amount of variation across cultures in length of transitions during conversational turn-taking (10588).
Increase in length of transition is significantly positively predicted by nonanswer responses (p > 0.001) and information-request responses (p < 0.001) and negatively predicted by confirmation of question (p < 0.001), visible response component (p < 0.001), and presence of questioner's gaze (p < 0.01). Language and conversation source treated as different levels and thus independent of these predictors.
|Mixed-level multiple regression||Supported||UNKNOWN||UNKNOWN||UNKNOWN|
|Variable Name||Variable Type||OCM Term(s)|
|Nonanswer Response||Independent||Speech, Conversation|
|Confirmation Response||Independent||Speech, Conversation|
|Information Request Only||Independent||Speech, Conversation|
|Visible Response Component||Independent||Speech, Conversation|
|Mean Length of Response Time||Dependent||Conversation, Speech|