Diversity and homogeneity in world societies

HRAF Press New Haven, CT Published In Pages: 190
By Bourguignon, Erika, Greenbaum, Lenora


Sex division of labor will vary according to subsistence type (35).


Hunting, where it occurs, is always a predominately male activity. Gathering is predominately but not exclusively performed by females (78% of societies, vs. 8% male and 14% equally-shared activity). Fishing is primarily a male activity in 94% of societies worldwide. Animal husbandry is also largely performed by men, except in the Insular Pacific (in 55% of societies women predominate) and South America (in over 50%, women predominate. Division of agricultural labor by sex is less consistent across world regions: Women predominate in agricultural work in Africa (more than 50% of societies) and South America (43%), but men predominate in the Circum-Mediterranean (almost 70% of all societies). Equal participation is most prevalent in East Eurasia (53%) and the Insular Pacific (41%). Where agriculture occurs in North America, men predominate in 42% of societies, women in another 42%, and labor is shared in 16%.


Test NameSupportSignificanceCoefficientTail
Comparison of percentagesSupport claimedUNKNOWNUNKNOWNUNKNOWN


Variable NameVariable Type OCM Term(s)
Division Of Labor By GenderDependentDivision Of Labor By Gender
World RegionIndependentIdentification, Location