HRAF Press • New Haven, CT • Published In • Pages: 190 •
Sex division of labor will vary according to subsistence type (35).
Hunting, where it occurs, is always a predominately male activity. Gathering is predominately but not exclusively performed by females (78% of societies, vs. 8% male and 14% equally-shared activity). Fishing is primarily a male activity in 94% of societies worldwide. Animal husbandry is also largely performed by men, except in the Insular Pacific (in 55% of societies women predominate) and South America (in over 50%, women predominate. Division of agricultural labor by sex is less consistent across world regions: Women predominate in agricultural work in Africa (more than 50% of societies) and South America (43%), but men predominate in the Circum-Mediterranean (almost 70% of all societies). Equal participation is most prevalent in East Eurasia (53%) and the Insular Pacific (41%). Where agriculture occurs in North America, men predominate in 42% of societies, women in another 42%, and labor is shared in 16%.
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