Is male androphilia a context-dependent cross-cultural universal?

Archives of Sexual Behavior Vol/Iss. 46 (1) Springer US Published In Pages: 63-71
By Hames, Raymond, Garfield, Zachary H., Garfield, Melissa


Male androphilia is a context-dependent cross-cultural universal (64).


After recoding existing data to distinguish between 'rare and absent' and different types of culturally-mediated same sex behavior, and taking into account documents not encompassed by the SCCS, the researchers find male same sex behavior present in 91.1% of all societies with data. Types of behavior are broken down into transgendered (48.1%), sex-gender congruent (12.6%), present-unknown (14.1%), juvenile-egalitarian (9.6%), age-stratified (8.9%), and absent (8.9%). Androphilia is defined as "primary sexual attraction to adult males", which the researchers argue is described at a minimum by cases of transgendered and sex-gender congruent behavior (57.5% of all societies) and at a maximum by these plus age-stratified and present but unknown same sex behaviors (83.6% of all societies).


Test NameSupportSignificanceCoefficientTail
Comparison of percentagesSupport claimedUNKNOWNUNKNOWNUNKNOWN


Variable NameVariable Type OCM Term(s)
Male AndrophiliaUNKNOWNHomosexuality