Culture and National well-being: should societies emphasize freedom or constraint?

PLoS ONE Vol/Iss. 10(6) Public Library of Science Published In Pages: 1-14
By Harrington, Jesse R., Boski, Pawel, Gelfand, Michele K.


The relationship between tightness/looseness and gross domestic product (GDP) will exhibit a curvilinear relationship, such that very tight and very loose nations have worse outcomes relative to nations intermediate on tightness-looseness


GDP per capita was found to be lower in both very tight and very loose nations. Additionally, relative to the linear model (F=.004, p=.95, R-Squared=.0001), the quadratic model was a significant improvement (F-change=7.58, p=.01, R-Squared change=.21).


Test NameSupportSignificanceCoefficientTail
Stepwise multiple regressionSupportedp=.03R-Squared=.21UNKNOWN