The relationship between cultural tightness-looseness and COVID-19 cases and deaths: a global analysis

The Lancet Planetary Health Vol/Iss. 5(3) Elsevier Ltd. Published In Pages: e135-e144
By Gelfand, Michele J., Jackson, Joshua C., Pan, Xinyue, Nau, Dana, Pieper, Dylan, Denison, Emmy, Dagher, Munqith, Van Lange, Paul A. M., Chiu, Chi-Yue, Wang, Mo


The tightness of a culture will be negatively associated with COVID-19 cases.


Hypothesis tested for mortality, GDP per capita, income inequality, testing ratio, under-reporting, percent migrants, population density, government efficiency, collectivism, power distance, authoritarianism, median age, days until lockdown, and government stringency. All models involving tightness (2-10) showed significant effects of tightness. (models 2-10: p< .0002 to .0041; b= -.73 to -.90).


Test NameSupportSignificanceCoefficientTail
Ordinary least squares regressionSupportedModel 2: p= .0003Model 2: b= -.80UNKNOWN


Variable NameVariable Type OCM Term(s)
TightnessIndependentNorms, Ethics, Social Control
COVID-19 casesDependentMorbidity