The relationship between cultural tightness-looseness and COVID-19 cases and deaths: a global analysis

The Lancet Planetary Health Vol/Iss. 5(3) Elsevier Ltd. Published In Pages: e135-e144
By Gelfand, Michele J., Jackson, Joshua C., Pan, Xinyue, Nau, Dana, Pieper, Dylan, Denison, Emmy, Dagher, Munqith, Van Lange, Paul A. M., Chiu, Chi-Yue, Wang, Mo


The tightness of a culture will be negatively associated with COVID-19 deaths.


Hypothesis tested to control for mortality, GDP per capita, income inequality, percent migrant, population density, government efficiency, collectivism, power distance, authoritarianism, median age, days until lockdown, and government stringency. All models involving tightness (2-7) showed significant effects of tightness. (Models 2-7: p<.0004 to .0041; b= -.94 to -1.08)


Test NameSupportSignificanceCoefficientTail
Ordinary least squares regressionSupportedModel 2: p= .0004Model 2: b= -1.07UNKNOWN


Variable NameVariable Type OCM Term(s)
TightnessIndependentNorms, Ethics, Social Control
COVID-19 deathsDependentMorbidity, Mortality