An ethnological analogy and biogenetic model for interpretation of religion and ritual in the past

Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory Vol/Iss. 29 Springer Published In Pages: 335–389
By Winkelman, Michael J.


Political integration will predict magico-religious practitioner type.


Political integration has a positive correlation (b= .24 to .65) with all practitioner types except for shaman (untested) and shaman-healer (b= -.26).


Test NameSupportSignificanceCoefficientTail
Multiple regressionSupportedp<.1See noteUNKNOWN

Related Hypotheses

Main AuthorHypothesis
Winkelman, Michael JamesPolitical integration and the presence of classes are correlated with the presence of Malevolent Practitioners
Winkelman, Michael James"Societies with a single practitioner type were generally hunting and gathering societies; while those with two practitioner types always had agriculture as a major mode of subsistence. The societies with three practitioner types present had agricultural or pastoral economies and, with one exception, political integration beyond the local level. Those societies with four practitioner types present had agriculture and political integration beyond the local level and, with one exception, the p...
Winkelman, Michael James"Priest practitioners were present only in sedentary societies with a major reliance upon agriculture or pastoralism"(37)
Winkelman, Michael James"Mediums occurred in societies with agricultural or pastoral economies, and, with one exception, they occurred only in societies with political integration beyond the local level" (36)
Winkelman, Michael James"All of the Shamans were in nomadic or seminomadic societies, which generally has hunting and gathering economies" (36)..."However, all of the Shaman/Healers were found in societies with agriculture, and almost all of the Healers were found in societies with political integration beyond the local level" (36)