Universal and variable leadership dimensions across human societies

Evolution and Human Behavior Vol/Iss. 41(1) Elsevier Inc. Published In Pages: 397-414
By Garfield, Zachary H., Syme, Kristen L., Hagen, Edward H.


Leaders and followers both benefit from leadership.


The model compared the costs and benefits for specific benefit/cost dimensions, for both leaders and followers.


Test NameSupportSignificanceCoefficientTail
Mixed Effects Logistic RegressionSupportedUNKNOWNOdds ratio = 3.2 for leaders, 1.8 for followersUNKNOWN