Global phylogenetic analysis reveals multiple origins and correlates of genital mutilation/cutting

Nature Human Behavior Vol/Iss. 6 Nature Published In Pages: 635-645
By Šaffa, Gabriel, Zrzavý, Jan, Duda, Pavel


Genital mutilation/cutting is associated with more restrictions on sexual behavior.


This is tested for each form of GM/C. Proxy variables for sexual behavior are prohibitions on extramarital sex (SCCS only), sex norms, and male segregation. Restrictions on extramarital sex are shown to be associated with all forms of GM/C, sex norms are associated with FGM/C and all of its subgroups (but not with MGM/C), and male segregation is associated with MGM/C and all of its subgroups (but not FGM/C). Correlated evolution models show that sex norms emerge more often or are more stable in the presence of GM/C, but may not be its cause.


Test NameSupportSignificanceCoefficientTail
Phylogenetic logistic regression, Correlated evolutionPartially Supported (see note)UNKNOWNUNKNOWNUNKNOWN