Global phylogenetic analysis reveals multiple origins and correlates of genital mutilation/cutting

Nature Human Behavior Vol/Iss. 6 Nature Published In Pages: 635-645
By Šaffa, Gabriel, Zrzavý, Jan, Duda, Pavel


Genital mutilation/cutting is associated with subsistence type.


This is tested for each form of GM/C. Variable proxies for subsistence type are foraging, pastoralism, extensive agriculture, and intensive agriculture. Pastoralism is included in all of the models, intensive and extensive agriculture are both included in every model except clitoridectomy and infibulation, and foraging is included in none of the models. However, the direction of pastoralism in the FGM/C models is varied, and its fit is therefore questionable. Correlated evolution finds that pastoralism may emerge more often or be more stable in the presence of GM/C, but may not be its cause.


Test NameSupportSignificanceCoefficientTail
Phylogenetic logistic regression, Correlated evolutionPartially Supported (see note)UNKNOWNUNKNOWNUNKNOWN